Millions especially as permanent residents or naturalized

Millions of people change their homes, crossing
cultural boundaries. “The swirling global
transformation spins off problems that necessitate new learning and new
solutions to new problems” Yun Kim,2001 (p.3) These problems are manifested
in a person’s daily life such as poor living conditions, lack of employment,
political instability and oppression as well as challenges brought on  by natural disasters which put  their lives at risk. These compels us to
stretch the limits of our customary imagination and creativity and forced to uproot them self
from familiar environments and embark on a journey of self-discovery, in the
hope of building a new and better life in what could be also a hostile
environment due to language barrier, cultural identity and many others.  The forefront of this not so new reality and
the solution to most of this obstacles initiates with immigration.

Immigration is the
international movement of people into a destination country of which they are
not natives or where they do not possess citizenship to settle or reside there,
especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up
employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

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There are 4 main types of Migrants:

 Economic Migrants: Economic migration is the movement of
people from one country to another to benefit from greater economic
opportunities. It is often assumed that such migration is primarily from less
economically developed countries to the more economically developed countries
and from former colonies to the country that was the imperial power.

  Political Migrants: Many people are forced to migrate because of a war, civil war or state
policies which discriminate against groups of citizens or people who oppose
those in power. These people are unable to return home because they have fears
of being persecuted and are unlikely to receive any protection from their

 Environmental Migrants:  Environmental migrants are
people who are forced to migrate from or flee their home region due to sudden
or long-term changes to their local environment which adversely affects their
wellbeing or livelihood.

Family Reunion
Migrants: This form of migration refers
to members of a family coming to join one of their relatives who is resident in
another country.

An estimated 230,000 citizens from EU countries immigrated to
the UK in the year 2017, and 123,000 emigrated abroad making the net migration
around 107,000.The Graph is a
small reflection of what was previously said showing the number of Non-EU
migrants coming in the UK has always been high, even higher than The EU
migrants coming in the UK. Reason being that the Non-EU migrants are the
highest immigrants in the UK is that most of these people are coming from
developing countries therefore individuals feel the urge of opting for a place
that could give them the economic, social and personal stability. Although in
the UK only 0.24%
of the UK population are refugees, asylum seekers or stateless people and due to the Brexit both
numbers of EU and Non-Eu migrants have, decreased meaning less people are
migrating in the country due to different possible reasons such as the decline
value of the pound as well as other motives. Non-the less the population of
migrants in the UK is high. Figure2 shows
the increase of foreign and national born from 1993 till 2015.In 2016 there were
39,000 applications for asylum in the UK, among the estimated 600,000
immigrants who came to work or study. Therefore 571.000 people coming in the country are economic
migrants, therefore migrants coming in have a definite job or looking for one. Furthermore,
there is a striking amount of Non-EU citizen coming in the country to study
also a small visible percentage of migrants coming in to reunite or accompany
family members.Most economic migrants come in to the country alone or with
their families in the hope for economic and social betterment. In a country
such as the United Kingdom, you are provided with many opportunities to make
that goal reality, but there are some obstacles.The majority of migrants arriving in the UK are from Poland
with 9.5% followed by two ex-colonies India and Pakistan accounting for 9.0%
and 5.9% of the UK’s foreign-born population. Polish and Indian citizenship are
also the main foreign nationalities in the UK, with Poles being the largest
group accounting for 15.7% of citizens. I belong to the 2.1% who arrived in
this country being born in Italy.Originally, from Ghana my parents moved to
Italy as economic migrants as well as to reunite with family members who had
already moved to the country. Being born and raised in Italy this was home to
me and my siblings at the age of fourteen after a recession hit Italy in 2010
we moved to the UK but unlike my parents who yet again migrated for economic
reasons I moved into the country for the chance of getting us more working
opportunities after a formal education which would have been limited in Italy.


Cultural Identity

Knowledge is
the single reason that the human race has progressed to reach the astonishingly
intelligent level of what it is today. Information and tuition is passed
through heterogeneous means and this is no more convincing in the city setting;
the multicultural metropolitan allows for all forms of teaching within.
However, the city may also be the educator in various ways, and not just simply
a setting for this education. Living within a city is vastly different to other
living conditions not just in the United Kingdom, but all over the world; the
life lived is a product of the lessons learned whilst in the city.


“We are challenged to face one another’s numerous
cultural differences and search for profound human similarities” (Yun
Kim, 2001, p.3) 


is important to understand how the host culture (The United Kingdom) works e.g.
politically and educationally, by doing so you become more aware of the
diversities and possible similarities between both your culture and the host’s.
Formal education is knowledge taught by trained teachers in a closed
environment such as a classroom The United Kingdom’s Department for Education
where the local authority is responsible for assigning the education policy for
the state-funded schools and public education at a local level administers
education in England. In Britain, education is mandatory but British children
are given the preferences either to get the education through formal schooling
or home-schooling as long the children receive their education in traditional
subjects such as English, Math and Science. As stated in1996 Education Act of
the UK, Section 7 of the 1996 Education Act:

“The parent of every child of compulsory school age
shall cause him to receive efficient full-time education suitable-

(a) to his age, ability and aptitude, and

(b) to any special educational needs, he may have,

either by regular attendance at school
or otherwise.”

formal education in the UK, there are five phases of education the system,
which are early years, primary, secondary, Further Education (FE) and Higher
Education (HE). Between the ages of 5 until 16 years old, all children are
required by law to have the education. Until they are 18, youth in England must
also carry out whether to stay in full-time education, volunteer while in
part-time education or apply for a job; start a traineeship or apprenticeship.
Lastly, the fifth phase of formal schooling which is Higher Education (HE), a
pre-university or post-compulsory secondary education beyond A-levels and
equivalents in which for most full-time students, it takes place in colleges and
universities.Street education is as an informal method of education gained from
the drive for self-progression among the population and the physical experience
of a city. Sometimes the teachings inside the city can at time create a ripple
effect within a city, culture, country.Although both methods of education are highly important,
they come secondary to upbringing. The reason being is that upbringing is the
first form of education that an individual receives and it starts from the
moment their born. From the values being passed over by parents and everyday
life routine and from it a person’s cultural identity is formed.

What is
culture identity? Culture identity is the
shared sense of beliefs, belonging and basic values of living (
When a person identifies with their culture, they often embrace traditions
and customs. From
the daily things, a person does such as eating together at the table creating in
a sense of unity between individuals. Speaking their native
tongue in their home, they maintain a sense of pride. This also gives the
advantage of being bilingual, which has many cognitive benefits throughout life as
well as being able to wear a certain type of clothing; eating traditional
dishes. . All these things then becomes a groundwork of
education, not only does it educate an individual by allowing them to
understand their heritage and values  but
is also the foundation of what makes them who they are and how their perceived
by others. 

Culture is the underlying foundation of traditions and beliefs that help
a person relate to the world around them. It is the basis for any superstitions
they may have. Culture gives us a definite starting point when beginning to
search for our roots. Knowing where a person comes from will help to define how
they look at their family obligations as well as how they celebrate important milestones in
life (

When a culture
dies, it is extremely hard to re-establish it which makes Parenting
across and between culture more or often can be a very stressful task. There
are various differences in how people from different cultures practice
parenting. These change from how children are shown affection to the outlooks
towards discipline and how much importance is placed on family
responsibility compared with promoting children’s independence.


Some cultural believes can have a very
firm code of behaviour depending on the child’s age or gender. Many ethnic
minorities come in the country fearful of children losing their cultural
identity through contact with children with diverse cultural background and
with attitudes dissimilar to theirs or through exposure to the media.

can be relatively easy to knock down a building, but it is much harder to
demolish a space which is composed around memory, experience or imagination.”
(Tonkiss, 2005)

media does not only play an important role to the people or simply any
individual, but it has become a tool to create memory, share experience and
visualise imagination in order to get any message across to the community of a
city. It also has a major impact on popular trend nowadays; in which it is
responsible in showing what is new in popular culture to the public. The mass
media conveys what is cool in fashion, entertainment, and technology therefore
exposing children to the general culture is in the host culture as well as
other countries.   Parents that hold different values and
opinions might not appreciate that  Mass
media is widely used and developed from time to time have taken control of a
society living in a city, by shaping and challenging the existed knowledge of
each individual from different range of age.