Modern Challenges facing Human Resource Management Essay

The 21st century has ushered in many alternate ways in which to make concern. Specially, Human Resource Management has been challenged to maintain up with today ‘s fast tools of engineering. Firms are confronting exceeding challenges but really few ideal solutions. These challenges have been identified as being talent deficits, globalisation, competition and technological betterment. ( Johnson, 2000 ; Kronos, 2003 ; Simphal, 2004 )

Confronted with the effects of globalisation, the Mauritanian authorities took the committedness to turn Mauritius into a ‘cyber island ‘ with ICT as the 5th pillar of the economic system. Thus concerns face increasing force per unit area to enroll and retain a knowing work force willing to accommodate to the of all time changing nature of concerns.

Therefore with the explosive growing of the Internet over the last several old ages and a strong economic system with record low unemployment rates and increasing accomplishments deficits in many countries has led to increased competition to enroll the best people. The enlisting procedure itself has besides undergone a dramatic transmutation in recent old ages with the use of the cyberspace. The usage of the cyberspace as a agency of linking the occupation searcher and the employer, and as a medium for carry oning certain elements of the enlisting procedure is described as on-line enlisting.

The antic growing of on-line enlisting market puts the emphasis on the phenomenon that electronic market places can set forward a range and efficiency that physical markets can non vie. And as the Internet incursion is turning, houses are taking great involvement in enlisting via the web. As a consequence, e-recruitment has now become a nucleus scheme of organisations in their recruiting procedure.

Therefore the challenge of Human Resources is to underscore on adding value to the staffing procedure with intelligent showing, filtering, screening and engaging package that can reasonably without any favoritism, locate and screen the possible campaigners electronically.

1.1 Rationale of the Study

The subject of on-line enlisting was chosen after a punctilious survey of the assorted topics and the approaching planetary tendencies in the concern background. As the universe becomes smaller and that competition can be seen everyplace, concern procedures need to go more efficient. One of these concern processes is the enlisting procedure.

1.2 Aims of the Study

To place the usage of intranet and cyberspace for the intent of enlisting

To look into the success and failure factors for e-recruitment

To analyze the attitude of stakeholders involved in the execution

1.3 Methodology

For the current survey both primary and secondary research were used. Primary research consisted of roll uping informations from Mauritanian Human Resource Practitioners with the aid of an on-line questionnaire. Furthermore a face to confront interview was conducted with the general director of two enlisting sites.

1.4 Structure of the research

The construction of the research is as follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction

It provides a brief overview of e-recruitment, the aims of the survey and the research methodological analysis.

Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal

This provides an overview of the extended literature on e-recruitment, analyzing the attitudes of the different stakeholders upon the execution, the cardinal success and failure factors.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

This presents a research methodological analysis usage: an overview of the design of the online study and the interview, the pretest processs were besides mentioned.

Chapter 4: Datas Analysis and findings

This provides a description of the e-recruitment procedure in Mauritius.

Chapter 5: Recommendations

This presents a description on disciplinary steps to be taken in order to better the pattern of e-recruitment.

Chapter 2- LITERATURE REVIEW

Definition Of Recruitment And Selection

Recruitment “ includes those patterns and activities carried out by the administration with the primary intent of placing and pulling possible employees ” ( Breaugh and Starke, 2000 ) and “ performs the indispensable map of pulling an of import resource – human capital — into the administration ” ( Barber, 1998 ) .

“ Choice is the procedure of roll uping and measuring information about an person in order to widen an offer of employment. Such employment could either be a first place for a new employee or a different place for a current employee. The choice procedure is performed under legal and environmental restraints and addresses the future involvement of the administration and of the person ” ( Gatewood & A ; Field, 2001 )

Anderson ( 1994 ) stated that enlisting and choice are ‘integrated activities and where enlisting Michigans and choice Begins is a moot point. ‘

Development Of The Use Of Technology And Internet In The Recruitment Procedure

The cyberspace foremost emerged as a recruiting tool in the mid-1990s and was hailed by the popular media as the driver behind a “ recruiting revolution ” due to the benefits it could convey to recruiters ( Boydell, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to Galanaki ( 2002 ) , on-line enlisting was foremost referenced in the mid 1980s, while systematic mention to the on-line enlisting in HR diary begins about a decennary subsequently, in the mid-1990s, ( Galanaki 2002, cites the work of Gentner 1984 ; Casper 1985 ) .

It was predicted that the enlisting industry ‘s “ hereafter is on the net ” ( Edgeley, 1995 ) and that the cyberspace had brought “ extremist alteration to corporate recruiting ” ( Cappelli, 2001 ) . Crispin and Mehler ( 1997 ) suggest that the Internet had brought a batch of freshness and ambiguity into the hiring procedure. They argue that HR directors are yet to calculate out how to set engaging schemes to online applicant tracking systems, synergistic voice acknowledgment services, PC-to-PC interview package, web-based proving tool, hunt engines, intrusive advertisement techniques, and legion occupation and sketch databases.

Traditional Recruitment

Harmonizing to Farhnam and Stevens ( 2000 ) , “ the traditional attack to enlisting is for line directors, holding obtained blessing for new stations, to supply occupation descriptions and individual specifications for ‘fine tuning ‘ by their forces section. Directors besides draft occupation advertizement, with the aid of the forces section for arrangement in newspapers and/or professional diaries. The forces section sends information and application battalions to possible campaigners, collates submitted application signifiers, forwards applications to line directors for short listing, arranges occupation interviews and notifies campaigners ”

From the survey of Arboledas, Ferrero and Vidal ( 2001 ) , they present some illustrations of enlisting methods that organisations are utilizing: newspaper advertizement, faxed/mailed sketchs, enlisting bureau or headhunter.

E-Recruitment

Harmonizing to Schreyer & A ; McCarter ( 1998 ) e-recruitment refers to “ the enlisting procedure, including puting occupation advertizements, having sketchs, and edifice human resource database with campaigners and officeholders. ”

From the relevant literature, the words e-recruitment, on-line recruiting, electronic recruiting, practical enlisting, practical recruiting, cyber enlisting, cyber recruiting are synonymous ( Simphal 2004 ) . They imply the formal sourcing of occupation information online ( Ganalaki, 2002 ) .

The traditional method of enlisting has been revolutionized by the outgrowth of the Internet. In the past few old ages, the Internet has dramatically changed the face of HR enlisting and the ways organisations think about the recruiting map.

Cullen ( 2001 ) besides supports that e-recruitment is non treated as a stand-alone human resource tool but is integrated into an overall recruiting and choice scheme that includes, among other things, sophisticated behavioral and accomplishments appraisal, interviewing, and extra agencies of placing demands and sourcing campaigners.

2.4.1 Benefits of e-recruitment

Millman ( 1998 ) cited in Rozelle & A ; Landis ( 2002 ) suggested that on-line enlisting offers an efficient manner to place and sort a virtually limitless figure of occupation searchers.

Elswick ( 2000 ) cited in Bussler & A ; Davis ( 2002 ) that a good e-recruitment system could convey lower cost by 90 % .

E-recruitment can increase the image of administration, particularly when constructing a corporate enlisting site ; it is considered to impute to the company an image of invention and flexibleness ( Fister, 1999 ) .

E-recruitment is considered as a really good tool to make the planetary mark ( Ganalaki, 2002 ) . It appears that other than linguistic communication barriers, which can be overcome, the Internet has no boundaries.

Recruitment And Selection Process Using Internet And Information Technology

The enlisting procedure can be identified as a support procedure: a procedure which is non straight aimed at set uping the primary administration ( Veger 2006 ) . Armstrong ( 2001 ) has broken down the enlisting procedure into three phases as being:

Specifying demands

Attracting campaigners

Choosing campaigners

Veger ( 2006 ) adds one more phase to this procedure viz. welcoming new employees into the administration i.e. the initiation of new employees.

2.5.1 Shaping demands

Armstrong ( 2001 ) stated that demands for peculiar places are set out in the signifiers of function profiles and individual specifications that provide the basic information required to outline advertizement, brief bureaus or enlisting advisers, and assess campaigners. By specifying demands, indispensable information such as the figure, type, and quality, nature of vacancy to be filled and other information can be acquired to come up with an appropriate occupation demand that will fit with campaigner ‘s profile.

A computerized occupation analysis can cut down the clip and attempt involved in composing occupation descriptions which in bend can be used to plan a individual specification. ( Malthis and Jackson 2002 ) . However one of the drawbacks to make and keep such sophisticated system is the deficiency and support from top direction for the passage and care costs associated with a to the full incorporate system ( Wether and Keith 1996 )

2.5.2 Attracting Campaigners

Malthis and Jackson ( 2002 ) stated that the purpose of pulling campaigners is to come up with a pool of campaigners who meet occupation demands. Bartram ( 2000 ) presents a snapshot of Internet development as a enlisting and choice medium. He examines the function of the Internet within a traditional enlisting rhythm. At the alleged “ attractive force phase, ” he writes, the Internet helps to pull people into a big pool by supplying a practical phase for a occupation poster.

Campaigners can be attracted in two ways:

Internal enlisting

External enlisting

2.5.2.1 Internal enlisting

Recruitment can be done internally ( within the administration ) every bit good as externally ( Veger 2006 ) .In big organisations, most vacancies are advertised internally before the are externally advertised as it is the cheapest manner of pulling a broad pool of campaigners.

Internal campaigners can be sourced utilizing two chief ways:

Skill stock list database

An employee accomplishments stock list database maintains profiles of employees, their accomplishments and abilities, for usage in fiting to internal chances. It may besides be used for accomplishments gap analysis and preparation. With a accomplishments stock list database based on a robust engineering platform, organisations can profit from being able to mine a crystalline internal labour pool and net income from a clear apprehension of the human capital it controls.

Corporate Intranet

Corporate intranet enable employees to take charge of their callings by allowing online applications for transportations, publicities or development activities related to their single callings ( Walker, 2001 ) .

2.5.2.2 External Recruitment

There are different methods of external enlisting through the cyberspace that are described below:

Company Websites

Lievens and Harris ( 2003 ) stated that ” Company net sites represent one of the first Internet-based attacks to enrolling. Many of these web sites besides provide utile information about the organisation, every bit good as a mechanism for using for these occupations ” . A corporate calling web site is an instrument to pass on with on-line campaigners. In any communicating, the key is to pass on the right information in a manner that has the greatest impact on the targeted audience. Subjects that jobseekers expect to see addressed on the corporate calling website include the company ‘s employment civilization, benefits and salary information ( Simphal 2004 ) .

Leading-edge websites contain the undermentioned information ( Walker 2001 ) :

Regular scheduled chat suites with cardinal company executives, politicians, bookmans, or good known company spokespeople.

Tips on how to interview, what to have on, and what to make

Information about what the hereafter holds

What places are available and how to use

Enrolling events and other employment- related information

However Simphal ( 2004 ) pointed out that some common errors found in corporate web sites are:

Some occupation information included company- specific abbreviation that campaigners did non understand

An on-line occupation application signifier halted users with mistake messages.

Unnecessary big artworks were slow to download

Furthermore, some jobseekers judge the company on the footing of their quality of their web sites which can be a hinderance because non all companies can afford to put on constructing a taking border company web site ( Mc Dougall 2001 )

Media Sites

A media site takes the signifier of a occupation listing websites where electronic advertizement appear likewise and at the same time with traditional printed advertizement in the original paper ( newspaper or magazine ) ( Ganalaki, 2002 ) .

The chief difference between traditional advertizement and media site as a beginning of enlisting is that traditional advertizement has less information while online advertizement has more information and farther mentions can be added and has a planetary coverage.

Relationship Enrolling

Relationship recruiting is a potentially major invention in the cyberspace enlisting ( Harris and Dewar, 2001 ) . Its major end is to develop a long term relationship with “ inactive ” campaigners, so that when they decide to come in the occupation market, they will turn to the companies and organisations with which they have developed a long term relationship ( Boehle, 2000 ) . “ Relationship enrolling relies on cyberspace tools to larn about web visitants ‘ involvements and experience and so e-mail regular updates about callings and their field of involvement. When suited occupation chances arise, an electronic mail may be sent to them sing the chance ” ( Lievens and Harris 2003 ) .

It is besides possible to utilize the cyberspace to travel one measure further and to supply possible appliers with realistic occupation prevue ( Travagline & A ; Frei, 2001 ) . This is because internet-based realistic occupation prevues can show information in a written, picture or audile format.

Recruitment Sites

With the coming of the cyberspace, off-line beginnings such as enlisting bureaus, caput huntsmans, outplacement service companies have established online. There are specific enlisting sites for employers and occupation searchers. Due to its targeted nature, it can hold a better opportunity to pull campaigners with peculiar accomplishments or field every bit good as a powerful beginning of pulling active campaigners ( Pin et al 2001 )

Online occupation boards and service suppliers have been established entirely to run via cyberspace.

Online Job boards

Job boards are commercial web sites where databases of occupation vacancies and application are found ( Mohamed et al 2001 ; Smith and Rupp 2004 ) . Online enlisting sites attract jobseekers by offering value added services every bit good as naming place and leting jobseekers to seek through them, they help campaigners to make resume online, give calling advice and offer networking and work life balance advice forums ( Simphal 2004 )

Service Provider

This is the pick of outsourcing the enlisting activity to a service supplier that provide proficient solutions to put up the best seamster made -e-recruitment system for each company that eliminates the demand for specific preparation for the people who are really undertaking the service ( Pin et al 2001 )

Social Networking

Social web has been widely associated with the term Web 2.0 which tends to cut down hierarchies by leting readers to go existent histrions. It is user-centered and it enhances information sharing.

From an applier ‘s point of position, mobilising a societal web makes it possible to obtain more information about the company and the occupation. From an employer ‘s position, harmonizing to Rees ( 1966 ) , doing usage of one ‘s ain web or that of the staff should restrict the figure of applications whilst at the same time guaranting their quality and besides cut down absenteeism and turnover.

In the enlisting model, the most representative Web 2.0 tools are:

Web logs, created by appliers and employers and headhunters ( Hightech-job ) .

Online Social Networks: Facebook or professional ( LinkedIn or Viadeo ) to happen clients, spouses and future employees, to run and reach “ inactive ” appliers.

RSS provenders ( Real Simple Syndication ) , where updated information can be automatically posted on a hunt engine of occupation offers ( Moovement for illustration ) , or RSS collectors ( like Netvibes and iGoogle ) .

Video platforms, such as Youtube or Youjob, give companies the chance to show their occupation offers, and applicants the possibility of presenting their Curriculum vitae.

2.5.2.3 Resume Management Systems

Resume direction systems scan resumes into databases, search the databases on bid, and rank the resumes harmonizing to the figure of ensuing hits they receive. The trust upon resume direction systems, coupled with the retrenchment of the human resource sections in many corporation. Despite the fact the bulk of big orgamisations now recruit over the cyberspace, most of them sift on the footing of strictly demographic standards and simple cheques on relevant experience ( Stanton & A ; Rogelberg, 2001 ) . Furthermore some companies claim that testing engineering has helped diminish employee turnover by between 10 to 30 per cent by assisting to set up a better tantrum between campaigner and the occupation ( Kotyar and Ades 2002 ) . Software application such as Applicant Tracking System ( ATS ) and Key Word Search ( KWS ) are indispensable tools in filtrating through the big sum of sketch in occupation bank and occupation sites. However, these tolls are non free from obstructions. Human Resource officers utilizing the Key Word Search ( KWS ) procedure frequently work without the advantage of clear and specific occupation information. As such, they may develop choice standards that are non occupation relevant that make the Key Word Search ( KWS ) procedure invalid and accordingly illegal ( Mohammed et al 2002 )

Choosing the campaigners

Gowan ( 2006 ) , has stated that “ choice is a strategic operation non a tactical one. “ Appointing the ‘right ‘ individual is of import. ” However, what is critical is doing certain that the ‘wrong individual ‘ is non appointed. IT has already made an impact on choice in the field of proving ( Cooper and Tinline 2003 ) and interview, although until now is non so widespread. Bartram ( 2006 ) studies that the function of the Internet is more limited in the 3rd phase i.e. the choice of appliers.

2.5.3.1 Methods of choice

Internet Interview

Wide set G3 picture phone provide a halfway house between the telephone interview and ‘live face to confront interview. Video conferencing provides the employer with the chance to carry on a individual, brace or panel interview without holding the cost of transporting applier in a common interviewing site ( Bartram 2006 ) .

Mention Checks

Now it is already rather common to seek and convey mentions by phone and electronic mail. The usage of cyberspace to present structured and adaptative mention cheques will add to the scope of ways in which this information can be collected. It will besides supply an effectual agencies of supplying a higher degree of control over disposal of mention look intoing instrument ( Bartram 2006 ) .

E-trays

Here, the information is presented on a computing machine and all responses are entered on the screen. It has to cover with a series of e-mail to be organized and prioritise and to take appropriate action to take and types relies to some electronic mails.

Web-based cognitive ability trial

Baron and Austin ( 2000 ) developed a web-based cognitive ability trial which is a timed numerical concluding trial with business-related points and was after an online application and before engagement in an appraisal centres.

Appraisal Centers

It is in the country of both group and single appraisal exercises that some peculiarly exciting new possibilities emerge. It is now possible that some possible to make multi-user exercisings ( e.g. concern simulations ) that can be closely monitored and assessed. The users need non be brought together to a individual location, but could organize portion of a practical appraisal Centre. The possible advantage of doing such undertaking cyberspace based is that it removes the geographical constrained on holding to convey people together to take portion of the appraisal ( Bartram 2006 ) .

2.5.4 Induction of new employees

Initiation is the procedure of having and welcoming employees when they foremost join a company and giving them the basic information they need to settle down rapidly and merrily to get down working ( Armstrong 2001 ) . Traditional initiation methods include employee enchiridion, on-the-job preparation and occupation and company briefing. Information Technology can besides be used in the in the initiation procedure by utilizing intranet and picture simulation to assist in socialising employee in the work environment, picture simulation can let a occupation circuit.

Harmonizing to Digenti ( 2002 ) , “ administrations quickly move their preparation focal point to practical environments, ensuing in a proliferation of methods and online classs. The move to practical bringing frequently involves uniting a organic structure of cognition with resource links, synergistic sections, personalization characteristics. ”

Shift From Traditional Recruitment To Internet Recruitment

The passage from traditional enlisting to internet enlisting is portion of the Human Resource ( HR ) Transformation. “ Human Resource ( HR ) Transformation is an incorporate, advanced and concern focused attack to redefining how Human Resource work within an administration so that it helps the administration deliver on promises made to clients, investors and other stakeholders ” ( Ulrich et al 2009 )

2.6.1 Functions of stakeholders in implementing the Human Resource ( HR ) Transformation

Ulrich et Al mentioned that Human Resource ( HR ) Transformation depends on the quality of HR professionals and their relationship with line directors. However if they can non react to the increased outlooks raised by transmutation, they will rapidly lose credibleness.

The stakeholders are:

Chief Human Resource HR Officer ( CHRO )

It is the leader of any administration who sets the way and tone for that administration. CHRO is usually the 1 who sponsor the Human Resource ( HR ) Transformation by apportioning money, clip to the transmutation offer. The CHRO novice, take the lead in the design and supervise the transmutation program and doing certain that it starts with the concern context. ( Ulrich et al 2009 )

HR Professionals

HR Professionals are the 1 who enact the HR transmutation throughout the administration if it is to hold any chance of success. Generally successfully HR professionals facilitate alteration by assisting do civilization happen and by developing subjects to do alteration go on throughout the administration. This may include execution of scheme, undertakings, or enterprises.

As HR professionals coach, designer, design, deliver and facilitate, they transform themselves from reactive staff followings into proactive concern subscribers. ( Ulrich et al 2009 )

Line Directors

Harmonizing to Ulrich et Al ( 2009 ) , “ Line directors are finally accountable for guaranting that the administration has the right endowment and right administration in topographic point to present on outlooks to clients. They have the duty to supply a clear concern focal point for the transmutation, to guarantee that the transmutation squad has entree to both internal and external information, to guarantee that the right people are involved in the transmutation procedure, and to necessitate clear and mensurable consequences from the transmutation. ”

However line directors have had negative experience with the HR patterns. Walker ( 2001 ) mentioned that from experience line directors are immune to alter and they attempt to maintain staff, in order to make concern as usual at their units.

Jobseekers and internal employees

Lievens and Harris ( 2003 ) mentioned that the usage of the Internet makes it far easier and quicker for jobseekers to use for a occupation. In old ages past, occupation searching was a more time-consuming activity. A campaigner who wished to use for a occupation would necessitate to first turn up a suited occupation chance, which frequently involved seeking through a newspaper or contacting familiarities. After turn uping potentially suited gaps, the campaigner would typically hold to fix a screen missive, produce a transcript of his or her sketch, and mail the bundle with the appropriate postage. By manner of comparing, the Internet permits a campaigner to instantly seek out and hunt through 1000s of occupation gaps. Application may merely affect directing a sketch via electronic mail. In that manner, one can easy and rapidly use for many more occupations in a far shorter period of clip than was possible before Internet enlisting was popularized. Applicants through the cyberspace are largely immature, computer- literate, and educated ( Ballie, 1996 and Frost 1997 ) .

Drawbacks of Online Recruitment

E-recruitment proves more effectual for companies already known [ ( Greengard, 1998 ) , ( William & A ; Klau, 1997 ) ] . However, Galanaki ( 2002 ) argued that the repute of the company can turn out a critical factor to the success of the enlisting attempt, non merely this is performed on-line, but with any other enlisting tool.

Administrations find it hard to enroll executive degree endowment on the Internet. Arkin and Crabb ( 1999 ) conclude that executive occupation appliers still prefer personal contact. Similarly, a point from Seminerio ( 2001 ) is that, many companies will desire to go on to utilize more traditional enlisting services for engaging certain employees, such as executive degree staff. Arboledas, Ferrero and Vidal ( 2001 ) likewise argued that utilizing e-recruitment tends to utilize merely looking for junior places and from recent university graduates. It is non suited for enrolling top direction. Besides, there are some places that are normally better resourced by utilizing a newspaper or utilizing both newspaper and website advertizement.

The hazard of overload of sketchs as the Internet makes it easier for appliers to breast their sketchs and it take all barriers of clip and geographics in communicating between employers and appliers. As a consequence, it could make a immense volume of unqualified campaigners ( Ganalaki, 2002 ) . Similarly, Pearce & A ; Tuten ( 2001 ) argued that Web-based occupation sites yielded a high volume of appliers but a low quality tantrum.

Pin et Al. ( 2001 ) mention the deficiency of human interaction, overpowering Numberss of sketchs, and privateness issues as negative sides of on-line enlisting.

The favoritism issue forwarded to Internet non-user [ ( Flynn, 2000 ) , ( Hogler, Henle & A ; Bemus, 1998 ) ] . It is claimed that e-recruitment may hold a disparate impact on certain groups of peculiarly cultural minorities. Peoples may miss entree to computing machines or do non hold the accomplishments necessary to utilize on-line enlisting. Therefore, employers need to retrieve that although the Internet has increased the geographic range of enlisting, at the minute, it remains limited in its demographic range ( Hogler, Henle & A ; Bemus, 1998 ) .

Get the better ofing Resistant To Change Of Line Directors

Peoples resist alteration because it is seen as a menace to familiar forms of behavior every bit good as to position and fiscal wagess ( Armstrong 2001 ) .Furthermore opposition to alter is a phenomenon that affects the alteration procedure, detaining or decelerating down its beginning, blockading or impeding its execution and increasing cost.

Wayss to get the better of opposition to alterations

Organizational Culture

Clarke ( 1994 ) stated that the kernel of sustainable alteration is to understand the civilization of the administration that is to be changed. Kotter ( 1996 ) argue that for the alteration to be successful, it must be anchored in the organizational civilization.

Organisational Learning

Pettigree et Al ( 1992 ) stated that larning plays a cardinal function in fixing people for leting them to get by with alteration. A willingness to alter frequently stems from the feeling that there is no other option.

Managerial Behavior

Directors are expected to run as leader, facilitators and managers who, through their ability to cross hierarchal functional, organisational boundaries, can convey together and actuate squads and groups to place the demand for and accomplish alteration ( Mabey and Mayon- White 1992 )

Following reappraisal of the literature on patterns and tendencies on r-recruitment, a figure of cardinal variables have been identified and grouped together. The undermentioned model comprises of a diagram high spot those that will enable e-recruitment