The motivation is very important in our lives. A few theories are attempted to explain why motivation is important . It is a stronger need and stronger impulsion. For example , a man has not eaten, he feel hungry and as a response he eat . And this behaviour are explain for motivation, the motive are prompted him to eat food. In management circle, the motivation can help people to overcome all possible obstacles and achieve our personal and professional goal. Dickson (1973) argue that the motivated of the employees are not entirely by money and their behaviour is linked their attitudes.
According by Bedeian (1993) in Hawthorne study, the employee needs and motivation are become to the primary focus of managers. It can improve the relationship between of people and management. Terpstra (1979) believe that the Hawthorne studies can helps us to understanding what motivated employees. In motivation can be divided into two theories that are content theory and process theory. The emphasis of content theory is natural need and motivation on individual at work, its change with time.
Another theory’s emphasis is actual process that can influence human behaviour and actions. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model, Alderfer’s modified need hierarchy model, Herzberg’s two factory theory and McClelland‘s achievement motivation theory, this four theories are under for content theory. On the other hand, the process theory can be divided into equity theory, expectancy theory and goal theory. In content theory, the Maslow hierarchy theory can be categorized into five levels; there are physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualisation.
In Maslow hierarchy theory, when the lower level needs had to be satisfied they will start to reconsider what they need for the next higher level. And these five levels can be influence attitude and work place. Alderfer’s modified need hierarchy theory is adaptation by Maslow theory. The Alderfer’s theory is about 3 needs. That is existence, relatedness and growth. And these three needs can influence human behaviour at one time. In Herzberg’s theory can be divided into motivators and hygiene factors. These factors are related to work context. Because Herzherg believe hat the motivators are produce job satisfaction and the hygiene factors are produce job dissatisfaction. The last theory is McClelland‘s achievement motivation theory that is developed by David McClelland. The McClelland’s is cover by Maslow theory. This theory people are acquire needs through their life experiences. On the other hand, the equity theory is focus on individuals perceives their reward or pay compared to what others are receiving. This theory can get two results, that are equity and inequity. The perceived equity individual is satisfied and do not change behaviour.
And the perceived inequity individual is the individual feel discomfort and act to eliminate the inequity. The expectancy theory is proposes that a person will decide to behave, because they are motivated to select a specific behaviour over other behaviour due to what they expect the result of that selected behaviour will be. And the core of this theory is the cognitive process of how an individual processes the different motivational elements. The last theory of process theory is goal theory. That is properly set and well-managed goals can be highly motivating.
A few strategies can motivate people in work. These strategies can effectively to influence the attitude and efficiency of employees. The first strategies are positive work environment. The relations of work environment and employees are closed. Good work environment can raising the productive of employees. If employees have a positive environment that allows them motivated to work hard and achieve their goals. The second strategies are social gathering. The social gathering can promote the team spirit and improve the relationship between employees.
For example, conduct gathering parties or dinner at Christmas, Halloween or Labour Day. The recognition strategies are an important weapon in company. That is simple way to motivate employee, because almost people want it . For example, at company dinner awarded the best staff trophy. It is give an “emotion payoff” for their action, let them sense of pride for their actions. Other strategies are reward system. A lot companies use the motivational tactics and rewards systems, it is often used as a management tool. A lot company’s managers believe that using the reward system can encourage employees to produce etter quality work and positive reinforcement to motivate employees. Therefore, the company managers can use this system to build a good relationship with their employees and make employees happier. Reading by an article of “Employee Reward and Recognition Systems”, in article is talk about a few different types of reward programs. The bonus system is short-term motivators. It usually to reward individual achievement. It can encourage employees to create more business or higher profits. It also can be used to distinguish every person’s achievements.
According by some experts, bonus system is a powerful tool to encourage employee’s efforts. The mean of profit share is reward employees for their contributions and give employees a bonus amount. That is equal to a percentage of the employee’s wages. The advantage of profit share is it can keep fixed costs low. The stock option is a long-term motivator. It like profit sharing system, use to reward employees for their persist. When the development of the company is positive, the company will take a pre-tax compensation expense, net of issue of shares to exercise their options employees.
Understand the motivation theory is very important key to the company’s manager. It let company managers can effective management and motivation of employees. And it is main way to becoming a good leader. The main theories about motivation are Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory and expectancy theory. These three theories are important to company’s managers. The five levels need of Maslow’s theory is effective motivation human attitude and easy to understand what motivates of human’s behaviour.
The first level is physiological needs that are physical requirement for human survival such as oxygen, water and food. The meaning is the managers should be give employees appropriate salaries, breaks and eating opportunities. Second level is safety that is including human’s protection and security. When they satisfied for the first level, they will reconsider how to improve their individual’s safety. Therefore the managers should provide the employees job security, positive work environment and insurance to protect employees. The meaning of third level is emotion feel.
When fulfilled the physiological and safety needs, they will needs interpersonal and feelings of belongingness such as friendship and family love. So the managers should be conducting gathering parties or dinner to improve employee’s relationship. Next level is esteem; it can also be referred to as ego need. That is including self-esteem and self-respect. The managers can reward employees or give the deserve employee higher job, when them hit their target. The last level of Maslow theory is self-actualisation. This level mean is an individual’s full potential.
The managers can give those challenging jobs to raising their standard, let employees reach the career’s peak. Herzberg’s two factors theory is two different set of factors affecting motivation and work. Herzberg believes that certain factors in the workplace are resulting the work satisfaction. Herzberg’s two factors theory can be divided into two factors. It is hygiene factors and motivators. Hygiene factors are elements of the job context and sources of job dissatisfaction. Such as salary, job security and working condition.
So the managers make sure adequacy of the hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction. The other factors is motivators, it is elements of the job content and sources of job satisfaction and motivation such as responsibility, advancement and natural of work. Managers ensure the work is interesting and challenging, so the employees will be work hard and better. The last theory is expectancy theory; it can decide a person’s behaviour. They expect the result is their selected behaviour. The core of this theory is how individual processes the different motivational elements.
Got three key elements are under for this theory; it is expectancy, instrumentality and valence. The first key element is expectancy, it is believe a strive of person will be reach their desired performance. The managers must need encourage employees, make sure the employees can reach their aimed performance levels. The second is instrumentality. It is a person believes that if they work hard, they will receive their reward. The last is valence. The meaning is the employees hope the managers rewards based of their needs. In conclusion, in management circle the motivation is very important.
It allows managers to effectively motivate and control employees and raising the productive of employees. Rick Pitino argue that every people’s motivated are different. He believes the motivation theory can let employees working hard. G. Jones and J. George believe that the psychological power can determine a person’s actions, direction and level of effort. If the manager know how to use motivation theory that can the employees to find out a better and simple ways to complete a work, more concerned for their customers ,let employees take a proud for their work and get more productive forces.
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