multimwdia interaction

In the early to mid 80s, the use of computer became
widespread. It became common to use them in homes and schools. Teachers in
schools and institutions became aware that they can benefit from the use of
computer especially multimedia to facilitate learning. Multimedia can be
defined as the integration of multiple elements in an application for example,
text, graphics, animation, video, and sound. This new technology attracted many
teachers and researchers because it brought a motivating and authentic learning
opportunity for students. Evaluations of new educational technologies have
tended to compare learning outcomes of instructional delivery methods with the
hope that the new technology will be the one to revolutionize learning (Parson,
1998, p. 2). It also provides students with a large amount of information so
that enables them to become autonomous and to practice even outside of the
classroom.

According to Park (1994), in the aria of second language learning,
the use of multimedia program “provides role-playing scenarios student can watch,
listen to, interact with and learn from a large database beginning with a dialogue.
Students can stop the dialogue and repeat it as many times as they want at any
time, record their speech as part of the dialogue and play it back, and explore
linguistic items such as vocabulary, phrases, grammar, cultural background,  and pronunciation in each dialogue.“ (P. 1). “Using
network computers with sufficient access to a database helped me to cope with
different levels of listeners in the same class and to provide various types of
practice for different requirements.”(Wakabayashi, 1998, P.175). Therefore, the
aim of technology integration is to improve classroom situation and to further students’
academic success.

1.1 Multimedia Interaction and ESL

Most of the second language learners live in an environment which
the target language is not the language of the community and also the teachers
are not native speakers. As a result, they may have difficulty to understand a
native speaker or to easily communicate with a native speaker.

Krista Stutzman, a high school Spanish teacher mentions:” I saw the
potential for technology to bring some ‘virtual’ native speakers into my
classroom. And so, I decided to study the effects of digital audio files, such
as Podcasts, on my students’ oral comprehension of the Spanish language.” In
spite of the fact that new technology brought learning opportunities to
students most of them do not know how to use it according to their needs.
Furthermore, the use of technology in class environment requires curriculum
adjustment and also teachers must consider new lesson plans and classrooms
activities.

1.2 The Benefits of Interactive Multimedia

Although there are many claims about the benefits of interactive
multimedia, but little research has been done to specify the exact benefit of the
interactive multimedia. For example, there are claims that the learner can use
large amount of information in multimedia environment, but there are little to
actually say how to use it.  In other
words, technology based activities must be described in the way that tell what
students actually do.

According to Dunkel (1991), they should be able to answer the
questions about “whether, to what extend, under what circumstances, and with
what results students- with what characteristics- actually do the things the
technology makes possible” (P. xiv). There fore the focus should be on the
context and culture.

To
conclude, the purpose of this study is to provide a better and comprehensive
way of how we can use integrative multimedia in the classroom and to see if it
can improve L2 students’ achievement. By using multimedia learners can progress
in all language skills. As it provide opportunities to improve speaking,
reading, writing, and listening simultaneously. The requirement is to develop a
suitable and proper plan in order to have an organized learning procedure. In
addition, it requires finding a way to adjust the use of multimedia in the
class environment as an alternative to traditional way of teaching. So, this
study tried to provide new insight about the use of multimedia in the classroom
and the strategy students’ use to better benefit from new technology.

1.3 Learning
L2 Vocabulary in a Multimedia Environment

Many
scholars advocate the learning of materioals through multimedia sor some
reasons. It provide the learners authentic input, they can have acsses to
target language and culture sources. it also motivate the learners as it offers
a veriety of available information on any specific topic. Furthermore, it take
account of individual different learning styles. They can benefit from dives
way of learning material through text, graphic, audio and video. There is also
a capacity to integrate the four skills of readin, writing, listening and
spiking.

In a
multimedia environment it is possible to repeat words, rules and lessons at
will, and to adopt a mixed approach: implicit through the use of oral and written
texts, and explicit through the availability of on-line dictionaries, aids and
exercises ( Duquette , Renié & Laurier,
2010, p.6). In order to learn meaningfully it is reuired to have a deep
understanding of the material. Therefore the learners should be mentally
involved with the structure and relate it to the existing knowledge. It is a
kind of cognitive processing and the role of multimedia is that it combine the
imagery and verbal information which enhances information processing. Ans many
scolars have mentioned that if the words associate with emage thay can be
learned more easily because it is easier to remember images than words.in a
study  (Duquette , Renié & Laurier,
2010), explored whether highly textured linguistic and extralinguistic contexts
provided by multimedia environment stimulate vocabulary acquisition. The
results of the study showed that multiple accurences of words in a variety of
contexts such as animated images, still and pedagogical images, stimulate
lexical learning. It also emphsise that multimedia materials provides better
learning oppurtunities for learners and suggest that learning environments
should be customised to each user’s learning strategies.

According
to Rusanganwa (2013), humans possess separate systems for processing pictorial
and verbal material: each channel is limited in the amount of material that can
be processed at one time, and meaningful learning involves cognitive processing
including building connections between pictorial and verbal representations to
enhance comprehension (p.3). Rusanganwa (2013), in his study investigated the process of
constructing a Multimedia Assisted Vocabulary Learning (MAVL) instrument
at a university in Rwanda in 2009. The instrument was consisted of 81 video
clips featuring images, sound and text containing technical electricity
vocabulary. The findings of the study showed that constructing an instrument
enabed collaborative and interdisciplinary learning and showed the potential to
facilitate technical vocabulary acquisition. Thus, multimedia technology
provides an invaluable resource for explaining, demonstrating and illustrating
ideas in a second language. In another study (MAYER, LEE and PEEBLES, 2014),
investigated a way to help college students who are not native speakers of
English learn from computer-based lessons that are presented in English by adding
redundant (in the form of a video that mainly depicted the animals and scenes
described in the narration) to an audio lecture. The students were presented a
slow-paced 16-minute narration about wildlife in Antarctica. The findings of
this study showed that adding video improved performance of non-native English
speakers on a comprehension test, perhaps because the video improved access to
word meaning without creating extraneous cognitive load.  

The previous
researches have broudly explored the effect of multimedia interaction on learning
second language, the achievement of students, and the great influence of new innovation
on the students intrest. However, using technology was always considered as tool
fot teaching materials beside the textbooks and there is no special program designed
based on multimedia. Therefore, the perpose of this study if to investigate whether
a proper teaching program can be designed accotding to the need ogf the students
and their different learning strategies.