In the early to mid 80s, the use of computer becamewidespread. It became common to use them in homes and schools. Teachers inschools and institutions became aware that they can benefit from the use ofcomputer especially multimedia to facilitate learning. Multimedia can bedefined as the integration of multiple elements in an application for example,text, graphics, animation, video, and sound.
This new technology attracted manyteachers and researchers because it brought a motivating and authentic learningopportunity for students. Evaluations of new educational technologies havetended to compare learning outcomes of instructional delivery methods with thehope that the new technology will be the one to revolutionize learning (Parson,1998, p. 2). It also provides students with a large amount of information sothat enables them to become autonomous and to practice even outside of theclassroom. According to Park (1994), in the aria of second language learning,the use of multimedia program “provides role-playing scenarios student can watch,listen to, interact with and learn from a large database beginning with a dialogue.Students can stop the dialogue and repeat it as many times as they want at anytime, record their speech as part of the dialogue and play it back, and explorelinguistic items such as vocabulary, phrases, grammar, cultural background, and pronunciation in each dialogue.“ (P. 1).
“Usingnetwork computers with sufficient access to a database helped me to cope withdifferent levels of listeners in the same class and to provide various types ofpractice for different requirements.”(Wakabayashi, 1998, P.175). Therefore, theaim of technology integration is to improve classroom situation and to further students’academic success. 1.1 Multimedia Interaction and ESLMost of the second language learners live in an environment whichthe target language is not the language of the community and also the teachersare not native speakers. As a result, they may have difficulty to understand anative speaker or to easily communicate with a native speaker. Krista Stutzman, a high school Spanish teacher mentions:” I saw thepotential for technology to bring some ‘virtual’ native speakers into myclassroom.
And so, I decided to study the effects of digital audio files, suchas Podcasts, on my students’ oral comprehension of the Spanish language.” Inspite of the fact that new technology brought learning opportunities tostudents most of them do not know how to use it according to their needs.Furthermore, the use of technology in class environment requires curriculumadjustment and also teachers must consider new lesson plans and classroomsactivities.
1.2 The Benefits of Interactive MultimediaAlthough there are many claims about the benefits of interactivemultimedia, but little research has been done to specify the exact benefit of theinteractive multimedia. For example, there are claims that the learner can uselarge amount of information in multimedia environment, but there are little toactually say how to use it. In otherwords, technology based activities must be described in the way that tell whatstudents actually do. According to Dunkel (1991), they should be able to answer thequestions about “whether, to what extend, under what circumstances, and withwhat results students- with what characteristics- actually do the things thetechnology makes possible” (P.
xiv). There fore the focus should be on thecontext and culture.Toconclude, the purpose of this study is to provide a better and comprehensiveway of how we can use integrative multimedia in the classroom and to see if itcan improve L2 students’ achievement. By using multimedia learners can progressin all language skills. As it provide opportunities to improve speaking,reading, writing, and listening simultaneously. The requirement is to develop asuitable and proper plan in order to have an organized learning procedure. Inaddition, it requires finding a way to adjust the use of multimedia in theclass environment as an alternative to traditional way of teaching.
So, thisstudy tried to provide new insight about the use of multimedia in the classroomand the strategy students’ use to better benefit from new technology. 1.3 LearningL2 Vocabulary in a Multimedia EnvironmentManyscholars advocate the learning of materioals through multimedia sor somereasons.
It provide the learners authentic input, they can have acsses totarget language and culture sources. it also motivate the learners as it offersa veriety of available information on any specific topic. Furthermore, it takeaccount of individual different learning styles. They can benefit from divesway of learning material through text, graphic, audio and video.
There is alsoa capacity to integrate the four skills of readin, writing, listening andspiking.In amultimedia environment it is possible to repeat words, rules and lessons atwill, and to adopt a mixed approach: implicit through the use of oral and writtentexts, and explicit through the availability of on-line dictionaries, aids andexercises ( Duquette , Renié & Laurier,2010, p.6). In order to learn meaningfully it is reuired to have a deepunderstanding of the material.
Therefore the learners should be mentallyinvolved with the structure and relate it to the existing knowledge. It is akind of cognitive processing and the role of multimedia is that it combine theimagery and verbal information which enhances information processing. Ans manyscolars have mentioned that if the words associate with emage thay can belearned more easily because it is easier to remember images than words.in astudy (Duquette , Renié & Laurier,2010), explored whether highly textured linguistic and extralinguistic contextsprovided by multimedia environment stimulate vocabulary acquisition. Theresults of the study showed that multiple accurences of words in a variety ofcontexts such as animated images, still and pedagogical images, stimulatelexical learning.
It also emphsise that multimedia materials provides betterlearning oppurtunities for learners and suggest that learning environmentsshould be customised to each user’s learning strategies. Accordingto Rusanganwa (2013), humans possess separate systems for processing pictorialand verbal material: each channel is limited in the amount of material that canbe processed at one time, and meaningful learning involves cognitive processingincluding building connections between pictorial and verbal representations toenhance comprehension (p.3). Rusanganwa (2013), in his study investigated the process ofconstructing a Multimedia Assisted Vocabulary Learning (MAVL) instrumentat a university in Rwanda in 2009. The instrument was consisted of 81 videoclips featuring images, sound and text containing technical electricityvocabulary.
The findings of the study showed that constructing an instrumentenabed collaborative and interdisciplinary learning and showed the potential tofacilitate technical vocabulary acquisition. Thus, multimedia technologyprovides an invaluable resource for explaining, demonstrating and illustratingideas in a second language. In another study (MAYER, LEE and PEEBLES, 2014),investigated a way to help college students who are not native speakers ofEnglish learn from computer-based lessons that are presented in English by addingredundant (in the form of a video that mainly depicted the animals and scenesdescribed in the narration) to an audio lecture. The students were presented aslow-paced 16-minute narration about wildlife in Antarctica. The findings ofthis study showed that adding video improved performance of non-native Englishspeakers on a comprehension test, perhaps because the video improved access toword meaning without creating extraneous cognitive load. The previousresearches have broudly explored the effect of multimedia interaction on learningsecond language, the achievement of students, and the great influence of new innovationon the students intrest. However, using technology was always considered as toolfot teaching materials beside the textbooks and there is no special program designedbased on multimedia.
Therefore, the perpose of this study if to investigate whethera proper teaching program can be designed accotding to the need ogf the studentsand their different learning strategies.