Many studies have shown that schools can play a mitigatingrole in traumatic outcomes and can promote resilience (Crooks, Scott, Wolfe,Chiodo, & Killip, 2007; see Heller, Larrieu, D’Imperio, & Boris, 1999).Research shows that Three-fourths of children who do receive services formental health problems receive their care through the school system (Farmer,Burns, Phillips, Angold, & Costello, 2003). Although schools can providechildren access to mental health education and services, not all services aresuccessfully delivered.
Part of the issue in implementing evidence-basedpractices in response to trauma is gaining the support from the school and itsleaders; this is why there are so few evidence-based practices or EBP’s surroundingtrauma being implemented in schools today. One of the most established EBP’s onTrauma is the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools. CBITS isa school-based group intervention demonstrated to reduce symptoms of PTSD anddepression among middle school children (ages 11–15) exposed to traumaticevents (Kataoka et al., 2003; Stein et al., 2003). CBITS uses a skills-based,early intervention approach to relieve depression and anxiety in group sessionsof 1-3 individuals.
Typically, children attend weekly CBITS sessions for tenweeks in their school, between sessions there are various activities, andpractice sessions that reinforce their skills learned in that week’s session.CBITS initially developed for ethnic minority and immigrant youth, has beenshown to decrease the negative effects of trauma and substance abuse andmisuse. Another best- practice that has just recently shown success in theschool setting is Trust-Based Relational Intervention or TBRI. Thisintervention is designed to address underlying issues behind persistentunmanageable traumatic behaviors for at-risk populations within the schoolsetting. Through this intervention, school professionals can guide childrenthrough the effects of trauma by utilizing three evidence-based principles.Promote relationships, awareness of self and others, and playful engagement(Purvis, Parris, & Cross, 2011; Purvis, Cross, & Sunshine, 2007;Purvis, Cross, & Pennings, 2009).
In regards to specific EBP models thathave been implemented across the juvenile justice system, there are threepopular models: Functional Family Therapy (FFT), Multisystemic Therapy (MST),and Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT). These three practices are known asbeing effective for treatment of juvenile delinquency. FFT and MDFT are family-based interventionsthat emphasize more family engagement. MST is a community and family-basedintervention which focuses on who is at risk for out-of-home placement.
(MST;Henggeler et al. 2009) “During the past decade, these EBPs have had anincreased presence in routine care of youths in JJ. Recent surveys indicatethat approximately 9 % of youths per year in the USA are served by one of theseEBP models, or about 15,000 of 160,000 JJ-involved youths” (Henggeler andSchoenwald 2011). This research speaks to the importance of expanding the reachand production of these effective programs and to the development of newimplementation models. (Leve, Chamberlain, & Kim 2015)