Q. 1: How did Nationalism and the idea of the Nation-State emerge? Ans: Till mid-eighteenth century most of the people around world did not have concept of nationalism i. e. about their nationality, their national identity etc. This is because at that time nations did not exist in their modern form. People lived within kingdoms, small states, principalities, chiefdoms and not within nations. The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789.
Thus, the idea of nationalism emerged in Europe and developed over a long period of time.It was a process that took many decades, involved many wars and revolutions, many ideological battles and political conflicts. The idea of nationalism emerged among the working-class population and liberal-minded educated middle class comprising of industrialists, professionals, artists, businessmen etc.
which resulted into the creation of the nation – state in place of the multi-national dynastic empires of Europe. Q. 2: Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.Ans: The language and popular traditions of a particular region or country give the feeling of shared past and common thread which played an important role in the growth of national identity. They bind all the people by the thread of togetherness and pride. They give them the feeling of being culturally one, hence, they perceive the sentiment of nationally one and united.
We have also studied how romanticism helped in the growth of nationalism in Europe. Hence, language and traditions had a great role and importance in the creation of national identity.Q.
3: Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising. Comment on the view-point of the journalist. Ans: The cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising was lower payments for the job done.
Contractors, who gave the raw materials and took away, finished textiles from the weavers, paid very less money for the latter’s services. When the weavers asked for higher wages, they were treated very badly and inhumane by the contractors. This led to the logical agitation and uprising by weavers against the contractors.The viewpoint of the journalist is that the conditions of the workers were highly miserable and contractors take unauthorized advantage of their miserable conditions. Q.
4: Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals? Ans: The 1848 revolution of the liberals refers to the various notional movements pioneered by educated middle classes alongside the revolts of the poor, unemployed and starving peasants and workers in Europe.All of them wanted to establish independent nation-states which recognize individual’s freedom, equality before law and liberty. While in countries like France, food shortages, unemployment and poverty during 1848 led to various revolutions, in other parts of the Europe, both men and women belonging to the middle classes came together voice their demands for the creation of nation-states based on parliamentary principles.
The political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals were as under – Political Ideas 1. Liberals emphasized on the concept of Government by consent.2. End of autocracy. 3. A constitutional and representative government through parliament. 4.
Right to property. Social Ideas 1. Liberals wanted to rid society of its class based partialities and birth rights. 2. Abolition of serfdom. They wanted a social equality among all the citizens of a state. 3. In the 19th century in Europe, the right to vote and get elected was not granted to those who did not have private property.
Women were reduced to the status of minor. Liberals wanted ‘right to vote’ and ‘participation in election’ for everyone. Economic Ideas 1. Liberals demanded freedom of markets. . Abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
Q. 5: Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe. Ans: The cultural involvement in the growth of nationalism is referred to as Romanticism. The examples of Romanticism are as under – 1.
Folk Culture Being a part of the daily life of common people, folk culture was important for building a national consciousness. German philosopher Herder emphasized that true German culture was to be discovered among the German people-das volk.He popularized the spirit of German nation through folk songs folk poetry and folk dances. 2. Language Language played an important role in growth of nationalism in Europe.
For example, in Russian occupied parts of Poland, Polish language was disbanded and Russian language was forcibly imposed everywhere. Many members of the clergy in Poland began using language as a weapon of national resistance. They did so by refusing to preach in Russian and by using Polish for church gatherings. The emphasis on the use of the language of the mass people helped spread the message of national unity. . Music Karol Kurpinski, a Polish man, celebrated national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the Poloniase and Mazurka into nationalist symbols. Q.
6: Through focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the 19th century.Ans: The development of the German and Italian nation – states in the 19th century. Till the middle of 19th century, the present day nations of Germany and Italy were fragmented into a number of small regions and kingdoms ruled by different princely houses. 9th century Europe witnessed many popular uprisings of the masses and revolutions led by liberal minded educated middle – classes. The middle – classes belonging to the different German regions came together to form an all-German National Assembly in 1848. But due to the strong opposition from the monarchy, military and aristocracy as well as because of the losing support of the majority middle class, the Assembly was forced to disband. Later on the chief minister of Prussia, Otto Von Bismarck led the movement of unity of the German Confederacy.With the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy he fought and won three wars against Austria, Denmark and France which had occupied the German states.
Ultimately he succeeded in the process of German unification and the German Empire was proclaimed in 1871. In the Italian region, during 1830s, revolutionaries like Giuseppe Mazzini sought to establish a single nation – state of Italian Republic. However, the revolutionary uprisings led by Mazzini failed to unite Italy. After this the responsibility to establish a unified Italy fell upon the princely state Sardinia – Piedmont.King Victor Emmanuel II was its ruler and Cavour was the chief minister.
Cavour led the movement to unify the separate states of Italy. He was neither revolutionary nor a democrat. He had a powerful diplomatic alliance with France, which helped him to defeat the Austrian forces in 1859. Thus, in 1861, Italy was unified and Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as the King of unified Italy. Q. 7: How was the history of the development of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe? Ans: The nationalism developed in Europe after the powerful revolutions, wars, military campaigns as we have studied in case of German and Italian unification.
But Britain was an exception to this. There never happened a war for nationalism. Britain comprised ethnic groups such as – English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish. Among them English became powerful with time and began to dominate the other ethnic groups. First they united with Scottish people and dominated them. Then they began to control Irish people and thus, United Kingdom of Great Britain emerged without any bloodshed. So, the creation of Britain did not come about as a result of the people’s desire to unite or their nationalism, but from the decision of the people in power.
Additional Questions Q. 1: Who was Frederic Sorrieu? Ans: Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist. In 1848, he prepared a series of four prints visualizing his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social republics’.
Q. 2: What do you understand by the modern and nation-states? Ans: (a) In a modern state a centralized power exercised sovereign control over a clearly defined territory. (b) A nation – state was a modern state in which majority of its citizens, and not only its rulers, came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history of descent. rope