Nelson Mandela




1.         Introduction to the


2.         Aim


3.         Leadership Analysis

a.         Outline of the leader

b.         Analysis of leadership style


4.         Analyses and Comparisons
between Leadership Styles

a.         Leader competence areas

b.         Leaders’ personal characteristics

c.         Leaders’ performance vs. followers’

d.         Advantages and disadvantages in today’s


5.         Lessons Learned and


6.         Conclusion


7.         References











“A Winner is Dreamer who never gives up”



During the 20th century many countries in Asian and Africa
were conquered and colonized by the western nations like Dutch, British,
Portuguese, Spaniards and French. South Africa was under the Dutch rule before
the minority British took over the government. The white minority exploited the
native Africans and got them to do all menial work on their agricultural farms
and industrial projects. The natives were treated as inferior to the whites.
They were segregated. This racial discrimination was termed apartheid.


The young educated African realizing the gravity of the situation
organized themselves to oppose all repressive laws and for their fundamental
and human rights. Nelson Mandela was a guiding star of this movement. He was a
living embodiment of the ideal and aspiration of the black people. He became a
legendary figure in Africa and abroad. Mandela was a man of action, master in
underground activities. He cleverly evaded the state police, which earned him
the name “Black Pimpernel”. He brought the works, peasant, women and youth
in to one united movement to fight for the oppressed and exploited natives. He encouraged his people
to continue fighting until they Strive freedom and never giving up until they
achieved their goal. On the other hand, as a significant leader, he elevated
consciousness of his followers by appealing to their higher ideals and values.


He was sentenced to life imprisonment on charges of treason and sabotage.
He served 27 years of his precious life in jail. The white minority government
realizing that the black protest movement could no longer be quelled through
force lifted the ban on the ANC and released Mandela from prisons. Mandela
shared the Nobel Peace Prize with K W De Klerk for successful negotiations for
end the evil of apartheid. He was inaugurated the first black president of
South Africa on 10 May 1994.


In this exercise it is discuss about the Leadership qualities of the
Nelson Mandela and how he applied the same until South Africa achieved the
Freedom from the evil of apartheid and end of his Career.




The Aim of this paper is to
analyse the leadership qualities of Nelson
Mandela and with regard to their applicability in the present context.




“It is better to lead from behind
and to put others in front, especially

 when you celebrate victory when nice things

You take the front line when there
is danger.

Then people will appreciate your

Nelson Mandel



Nelson Rolihalahla Mandela, a leader of the South Africa Anti-Apartheid
movement was born in a village near Umatata in the Transkei on the 18 July
1918. His father, Henry was the chief of the Tembu tribe and had four wives.
Chief Henry died when Nelson Mandela was only twelve years old.


He went to a school of a local missionary. Because of holding
anti-government and anti-state views at a very young age, Mandela could not
remain in the school for very long. He was rusticated and removed from the
school. He went to Johannesburg and managed to get a job as a gold mine
policeman. While doing the job he followed a correspondence course at
University of South Africa and obtained the Degree of Bachelor of Arts. Nelson
after studying for his LLB at Witwatersrand University graduated in Law and
qualified as a Solicitor.


His political interest and views of resistance were aroused while he
listened to elders of his tribe in the village. The tribal leaders would relate
stories of the past as to how they used to fight heroic wars in defence of
their country, as well as the acts of valour performed by the leaders and
soldiers during those epic days. The qualities of leadership and desire of
freedom within him aroused the spirit of resistance. He hoped and vowed that he
would sacrifice the pleasure of life but he would not lose the opportunity of
serving his people by restoring to them the freedom, which they had during the
pre-colonial days. In spite of such liberal views, he was not free from the
tribal customs. He was circumcised at the age of 16 on the bank of his tribal
home. Paramount chief of the Tembuland, who looked after him after the death of
his father, married him to fat and dignified girl from a royal family.


During his stay at Johannesburg and at the university, that he felt the
agony of racial discrimination and colour bar. He saw men of his colour
fighting for equal rights and rights and freedom of movement. At the age of 25,
he joined the African National Congress in 1944. When the congress Youth League
was formed and the concept of African Nationalism was under transformation,
gave Nelson an undeterred opportunity to show his inherent leadership and
dedication to the cause for which the ANC was formed. He was one of the accused
in the massive treason trial at the end of 1950s and following the 1960,
banning of the ANC, he went underground.


It was during this time that he together with other leaders of the ANC
constituted a new specialised from of liberation movement, “Umkhonoto We Sizwe“
(spear of the nation), as an armed nucleus with Mandela as its


The group attempted to drive home the seriousness of their intentions to
achieve equal rights for all races in South Africa by attacking government
buildings, evading injury to people and for his part in the defiance campaign;
Mandela was convicted under the suppression of communism Act and given a suspended
prison sentence. Shortly after the campaign ended, he was also prohibited from
attending gatherings and confined to Johannesburg for six months.


During the whole of him fifties, Mandela was the victim of various forms
of repression. He was banned, arrested and imprisoned. After the Sharpeville
massacre in 1960, the ANC was outlawed, and Mandela put on trial and detained.
The treason trial collapsed in 1961 as South Africa was being steered towards
the adaptation of the republic constitution. Mandrel’s activities at the time
forced him to hide from South African authorities. In 1962 Mandela left the
country illegally and travelled to several countries. During this trip Mandela,
anticipating from south, began to arrange guerrilla training for members of “Umkhonto
We Sizwe” When he return home, the police were tipped off about his hiding
place and Mandela was arrested, convicted of incitement to riot and leaving the
country without a passport. He was sentenced to five years in Jail.  


While in prison doing hard labour he was tried again for his involvement
in “Umkhonto We Sizwe”. Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment. In the
winter of 1964, Nelson Mandela started his prison years in the notorious Robben
Island prison. He spent 18 years out of his 27 prison years in Robben Island.
Mandela served just over twenty seven years as a political Prisoner as rest of
the world demanded his release. While Mandela was in prison growing
anti-apartheid forces in South Africa argued that he should be freed. Mandela
flatly rejected offers made by his jailers’ remission of sentence and again he
rejected an offer of release on condition that he renounces violence.


 In July 1989 PW Botha, then
President met Mandela in prison and in December the same year Botha’s
successor, FW de Klerk held an important meeting with Mandela in prison. The
very next year Mandela was released and the ban on ANC lifted. He was
inaugurated as the first democratically elected State President of South Africa
on 10 May 94. He was the country’s first black president. The country’s
National Assembly elected him. The assembly had been chosen in South Africa’s
first free election in which the blacks were allowed to vote. Blacks won a
majority of the Assembly seats. These development marked the beginnings of a
new era in South African politics, thus blacks gained control of the government
after a long period of white domination.




is defined as the ability to influence a group of people towards the
achievement of goals. On the other hand, management relates primarily to
maintaining order and consistency. Nelson Mandela, the great South African
president, adopted the mixed of leadership styles with a vision and inspired
the others to follow his direction in order to achieve the goals.


Leader. Nelson Mandela had a dream where he saw an Africa with
politically-sanctioned racial segregation being wiped out and man are by and
large free and balanced. It was this vision that pushed him to do what he
should do and it was additionally this vision that influenced him to trust that
regardless he has trust through the darkest days in jail. He never surrendered
despite the fact that he was detained for twenty-seven years previously being
chosen to be the primary leader of South Africa. Nelson Mandela went around his
country giving discourse, as well as yet he sorted out protection from biased
enactment. Furthermore, he additionally developed and outfitted his country to
battle for their rights and in particular their opportunity. He additionally
urged them to battle against the politically-sanctioned racial segregation and
also persuading them that they could take care of the abuse.


Charismatic Leader. Nelson Mandela honed such style of administration which was
affirmed to be extremely enrapturing and effective. While driving his adherents
back then, Nelson Mandela held compelling enthusiastic responses towards them.
It was this authority style which held the trust amongst Mandela and his ANC
adherents when Mandela was detained for as long as twenty-seven years.
Actually, this compelling enthusiastic response gave them a solid conviction
that they should keep on fighting for politically-sanctioned racial segregation
and promise willing submission to him.


As the Volunteer in Chief of the ANC,
Mandela travelled around the country trying to raised people’s awareness and
organizing confrontation to prejudiced regulation. He encouraged his people to continue fighting until they strive
freedom and never giving up until they achieved their goal. Further, as a
significant leader, he elevated consciousness of his followers by appealing to
their higher ideals and values. In fact, he also encouraged many to educate
themselves because adopting education is the key to success.


Democratic. Nelson
Mandela finally employed a democratic style of leadership, allowing him to
facilitate reconciliatory communication between South Africa’s many and varied
social groups and influence a dramatic improvement in his nation’s political
situation. The primary feature of the democratic style of leadership is the
encouragement of the participation of all another
key feature of the democratic style of leadership is the fact that group
members become active stake-holders through the harnessing of their individual



leaders must be ready to sacrifice all for the freedom of their people’

  Nelson Mandela



While campaigning for equality, he was ultimately sent to
prison where he would spend the next 27 years of his life. He was confined to a
small cell without a bed or plumbing and was forced to do hard labour. As a
political prisoner, he received smaller rations and fewer privileges than other
inmates. Further, he was only allowed to see his wife and two young daughters
twice a year. Under this condition also Mandela stayed strong throughout
the 27 years.


17.  Nelson
Mandela’s speechmaking assumed a key part in his voyage. He conveyed numerous
effective and huge discourses amid his lifetime. He was an incredible speaker
who was familiar and could clear himself well. His addresses were assembled
with wonderful words and sentences. In March 1990, two months after his
discharge from jail, he tended to 72,000 individuals at Wembley Stadium in
London at an advantage show supporting the finish of politically-sanctioned
racial segregation. In a basic however capable articulation he told the group
“Thank you that you give it a second thought”.


18.  Mandela was
loaded with trust, not abhor and he was a man who could excuse his oppressors.
He even pardoned those that detained him for a long time. Mandela had an
eagerness to connect and associate with even the individuals who detested and
dreaded him and this set him apart from numerous pioneers. He even ate with the
man who attempted to slaughter him. For instance, Percy Yutar was the state
prosecutor at the 1964 treachery trial at which Mandela was indicted damage and
condemned to hard work forever. He requested capital punishment for Mandela. In
1995, Mandela welcomed him to supper where they delighted in a dinner. Mandela
said that Yutar had just been doing his activity and when inquired as to why he
was so ready to excuse, he replied “Hating clouds the mind”.


 Nelson Mandela had a sense of humility and always focused on the
people and not his own ego. During the 1995 rugby world cup he
at South Africa, encouraged black South Africans to support the previously
hated South African national team which had been subjected to various boycotts.
The country went on to win the tournament, with Mandela presenting the trophy
to Captain of the team and this was widely seen as major step in the
reconciliation of white and black South Africans.


20.  Further, amid his last years, Nelson Mandela
wound up plainly one of the world’s most vital and viable campaigners against
HIV/Aids, conveying more thoughtfulness regarding the issue and endeavoring to
end its embarrassment. He surrendered the vast majority of his engagements
aside from those were he was welcome to talk and spread mindfulness on Aids. It
turned into the most imperative work of his establishment and he propelled a
philanthropy, to which he gave his Robben Island jail number, 46664, to bring
issues to light and finances through gigantic global shows.


21.  Mandela had
come from a long line of leaders. Born into a royal family in 1918, his
grandfather had been a king of the Thembu people. He led the South Africa from
apartheid to democracy, was a humble, eloquent and inspirational figure who
advocated peace, democracy and human rights. Mandela will be remembered as a
man who went beyond the call of duty. He showed his fellow countrymen that it
was possible, perhaps even imperative to forgive one’s enemies.

22.   Mandela was such an intense pioneer amid
politically-sanctioned racial segregation that the white minority government
thought of him as a risk to the state, even from jail. He propelled individuals
around the globe to help the counter politically-sanctioned racial segregation
development. “Free Mandela” was regularly yelled in challenges which
that were composed by individuals who never met him. He never surrendered in
the battle against his nation’s severe administration and was discharged from
jail in 1990. He at that point partook in the destruction of
politically-sanctioned racial segregation and turned into the primary dark
leader of South Africa in 1994. Mandela showed others how its done, motivating
South Africa’s political and racial opponents to cooperate to manufacture a
vote based system.


Great leaders are honest, open and
transparent. They share their passions and make no excuses for supporting the
causes they believe in. Mandela was in fact so transparent, his words and act.
Mandela had a great awareness of his way of being, his patience, calm
confidence, forgiveness, and humor all helped to increase his followership  helping to gain support in achieving his
goals and making a positive impact.





Mandela had a vision where he saw an Africa with apartheid being eliminated and
man are being free and equalized. He never gave up fight even though he was
imprisoned for twenty seven years. This strong emotional reaction gave
Followers a strong belief that they should continue to fight for apartheid and
pledge willing obedience to him. As result of this people
around the world support the anti-apartheid movement. As the first black
president of South Africa in 1994, Mandela led by example, inspiring South
Africa’s political and racial rivals to work together to build a democracy.


In 1993 Nelson Mandela shared Nobel Peace Prize with FW de Klerk, for
successful negotiations to end the evil of apartheid in South Africa as results
of the satisfaction of his dedication and sacrifice. Mandela was the recipient of the Jawaharlal Nehru
Award for International understanding (1979), Bharat Rattan in 1990 and the
world Methodist Peace Award in 2000 as well as in the same year he was
presented with the prestigious Gandhi Peace Award.




“The greatest
glory in living lies in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.”

Nelson Mandela


Nelson Mandela is one of the greatest freedom fighter of the world. He
was a demi-god for the oppressed natives of South Africa. He dedicated his
entire life for the fight against the apartheid and freedom of the blacks.
Although he trained himself in guerrilla warfare and started an armed wing of
ANC and shunned violence in his struggle. Mandela will
be remembered as a man who went beyond the call of duty. He showed his fellow
countrymen that it was possible, perhaps even imperative to forgive one’s
enemies. He inspired people around the world to support the anti-apartheid
movement by using the Gandhian style and he was referred to as “Living Gandhi“.

He never gave up in the fight until
he achieved the Goal. Mandela had a great awareness of his way of being, his
patience, calm confidence, forgiveness, and humour all helped to increase his followership
by helping to gain support in achieving his goals and making a positive impact.
He hated none and
stretches his hands to his opponents to join him in rebuilding a new and
independent South Africa.


The life and the work of Nelson Mandela should be a fine inspiration and
an example for the political leaders as well as for the Military Leaders. The
Life of the Mandela deeply explained that the impossible is nothing, we are
responsible to change our life, Power of Education, Importance of the Positive
thinking, Live on Purpose and Never give up the Life Until we achieved to the



While studying the Life of the Nelson Mandela people could
able to realize that what the leadership is. Whether you are born or developed
as a leader is not a question, the main thing that we can learn from the
Mandel’s Life. Only thing we need is charisma to be a leader.  In general, Nelson Mandela can be
characterized as an excellent leader, with good judgments and listening skills,
sensitive and open-minded. He was an intelligent leader since it requires good
strategic plan and clever manoeuvre in order to defeat your enemies without
humiliating them. Motivating and Moral Building of followers, creating confidence, Coordination, Goal setting and
representation are the main things which we can acquired from the Mandela’s
life as the advantages in the Today’s Environment.


30.       The South African activist and former
president Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) helped bring an end to apartheid and has
been a global advocate for human rights. A member of the African National
Congress party beginning in the 1940s, he was a leader of both peaceful
protests and armed resistance against the white minority’s oppressive regime in
a racially divided South Africa. His actions landed him in prison for nearly
three decades and made him the face of the antiapartheid movement both within
his country and internationally. Released in 1990, he participated in the
eradication of apartheid and in 1994 became the first black president of South
Africa, forming a multi-ethnic government to oversee the country’s transition.
After retiring from politics in 1999, he remained a devoted champion for peace
and social justice in his own nation and around the world until his death in
2013 at the age of 95.

The Former President of USA President Barack Obama’s
anti-racism tweet following the deadly Charlottesville race rally became the
most liked tweet of all times.  More than
three million people liked the tweet.  
That was President Obama made a speech condemning the racism in the
aftermath of the protests,

‘No one is born hating another person because of the color
of his skin or his background or his religion…’

He then followed this up with another quote from Mandela’s
autobiographical Long Walk to Freedom:

‘People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate,
they can be taught to love.