Network And Hierarchical Databases Systems Computer Science Essay

William Hill is one of a largest bookmaking company in the UK leisure industry. In the UK market portion William Hills merely second to the Coral Racing Company. It has over 2500 retail mercantile establishments in the United Kingdom and another 300 mercantile establishments elsewhere in the universe. It was born in 1934. In that clip betting was n’t even legal, so they started the concern behind the doors and it was known as being knowing, honest and trust worthy. In 1966 with chancing become legal William Hill has joined in to the market opening up retail mercantile establishments in most popular metropoliss in throughout UK. With the reaching of telecasting, wagering became more of a leisure activity. In 1998 William Hill has became the first in the concern to present an online wagering capableness to their portfolio. Harmonizing to their CEO some things has n’t change though that ‘s their repute for honestness and unity and exceeding client service are much more of import to vie in the concern.

There are five major rivals in the UK leisure industry. Which are William Hill, Ladbrokes, Tote, Coral and Betfred, together they achieved of merely over 80 % of all wagering stores in the high street. Out of all William Hill has the biggest portion of 25 % in the entire figure of wagering mercantile establishments. Online gaming has contain big figure of rivals among them harmonizing to selling research done by the William Hill itself in 2008, some 24 % of regular online betters had a William Hill wagering histories. The web has changed the look of the industry, “ non merely giving companies entree to new clients has different involvement ” ( ) , but besides enabling a far more exciting portfolio of gambling and betting merchandises are offered. Gambling is a leisure interest in certain age group of people, bulk is aged as they enjoyed this as nil else. It is largely popular in the UK, where wagering on featuring events, Equus caballus racing in peculiarly, have long been portion of British civilization.

Throughout this assignment I ‘ll explicate the three types of Database Management Systems in item and I ‘m seeking to look into why William Hill utilize ORDBMS type database alternatively of any other type of databases and what are the features of each type of database besides advantages and disadvantages of each type of database. In the concluding portion of this assignment I would wish to turn out why William Hill utilizing ORDBMS and my recommendations which I study through this assignment.


The deficient capablenesss of web and hierarchal databases systems resulted in the creative activity of the relational database direction system. In the other words relational informations theoretical account is the develop version of the web database with some extra characteristics. Relational theoretical account, merely like hierarchal and web theoretical accounts are based upon tabular arraies and utilize parent/child relationships. A tabular array is a basic edifice unit of the relational database. A table consists of rows and columns. Each tabular array has a alone name in the database. The good relational design would do certain that such a record describes an entity. The record should non incorporate irrelevant information. For an illustration client table trades with the client information merely, its records should non incorporate information about for case, merchandises that this client ordered from the company. There is no theoretical bound on the figure of rows a tabular array could hold in RDBMS, nevertheless some executions enforce limitations. Furthermore there are practical considerations to the bounds like informations retrieval velocity, sum of storage in database depends on the database hardware itself. Tables in RDBMS might or might non be related to the other tabular arraies. As I mentioned before, RDBMS is built upon parent/child relationship impression, but unlike in hierarchical, web databases these dealingss are based merely on the values in the tabular array columns. Besides these relationships are meaningful in logical scenarios and RDBMS may necessitate to run a directory service along side to the database package to acquire the maximal productiveness.

Features of RDBMS

1. The relational character of the RDBMS makes it appropriate for treating complicated, sophisticated information theoretical accounts that require many tabular arraies, foreign cardinal values and fall ining operations, which make the RDBMS composite to manage.

2. The RDBMS character has many mechanism designed to vouch informations unity. This includes push back operations and referential unity.

3. The RDBMS is designed to manage repeatedly changing informations. on the other manus, RDBMS can besides store tremendous sums of historical informations, which can be subsequently recover when required.

4. Minutess operate on a consistent position of the information record. When the dealing is finished, it ‘ll rollback to consistent province once more.

5. Minutess run isolated from other connexions. So if connexions are running at the same time, the effects of dealing A is non seeable to dealing B, and vice-versa, until the dealing is completed.

6. Once the dealing beggary, till it ‘s finished the activities occurs in between are non lasting or relentless for a illustration if clangs rollback characteristic will come to alive and forced to travel back to old consistent province.

7. Roll back characteristic is much more capable of change by reversaling even the bantam modifiers to its tabular arraies, row or column involved in simple dealing.

8. A question is a information retrieval public-service corporation allows informations use and tabular arraies in RDBMS.

9. RDBMS are on a regular basis used application oriented programmes to written data dealing.

10. RDBMS contains alone operation system to back up each application separately.

Advantages of RDBMS

1. RDBMS are that the system is simple, flexible, and productive. BecauseA the tabular arraies are simple, informations is easier to understand and pass on with others. RDBMS are flexible because users do non hold to utilize predefined keys to input information.

2. Ad hoc question capablenesss ( SQL ) in RDBMS are more productive because SQL is easier to larn. This allows users to pass more timeA inputting alternatively of larning.

3. it ‘s ease grip, users canA create and entree informations and widen it if needed. After the original database is created, new informations classs can be added without the bing application being changed.

4. Improved conceptual simpleness and easier database design, execution, direction and use.

Disadvantages of RDBMS

1. Transaction processing is by and large short lived. Concurrency control primitive and protocols are non peculiarly suited for long continuance minutess.

2. Entity creative activity of dealingss does non fit to entities in existent universe. Division of a existent universe entity into many dealingss, with a physical representation that reflect the construction, is deficient taking to many articulations during question processing.

3. RDBMS has merely one concept for stand foring informations and relationship between the entities. There is no mechanism to separate between entities and relationships. It ‘s said that the relational theoretical account is semantically overloaded.

4. Integrity is normally expressed in footings of restraint. Which are consistence regulations that non permitted to go against. But RDBMS does non to the full back up to this restraint. This leads to database incompatibility.

5. Relational theoretical accounts assumes both horizontally and perpendicular homogeneousness. This fixed construction is excessively restrictive for many existent universe objects that have complex construction and its leads to unreal articulations which are inefficient.


Modern database applications need to hive away and command objects that are neither little nor simple, and to execute operations on these multimedia objects that are non predefined. So ORDBMS was created to manage those new types of informations multimedia type informations such as sound, picture, and image files that RDBMS were non capable of keeping. On the other manus its development was the consequence of improved use of object-oriented scheduling linguistic communications, DBMS package fills the immense difference between these two constructs.

Features of ORDBMS

1. ORDBMS are frequently considered the span between RDBMS and OODBMS, implementing the easiness of usage of the RDBMS and the flexibleness of the OODBMS to manage complex informations types.

2. RDBMS employ a information theoretical account that attempts to integrate OO characteristics into RDBMS.

3. The chief part of the ORDBMS is its ability to manage complex, object-centric, changeless informations while keeping the easy-to-use RDBMS questioning methods to run on that information.

4. An ORDBMS is employed in application spheres where complex informations types are required and merely can non be managed utilizing a traditional RDBMS and its attach toing query linguistic communication.

5. The friendly characteristic in an ORDBMS allows companies to transport on utilizing their current system, without holding to make any cardinal alterations.

6. Its gives an chance to companies and coders to utilize parallel to the object oriented systems.

7. Its procedure the priestly conjunction informations in a position of that the attribute heritage. So ORDBMS has greater velocity of treating informations.

Advantages of ORDBMS

1. As I mentioned in ORDBMS features this has a characteristic that allows companies to transport on utilizing their current system, without holding to make any cardinal alterations.

2. Can utilize parallel to the object oriented construct.

3. An ORDBMS arranged the informations and behavior of concern objects within an abstract information theoretical account.

4. Object Relational question capableness contract with the existent objects like, personal name, portion, codification, polygon and picture, alternatively of whole number values.

Disadvantages of ORDBMS

1. Complex than the RDBMS.

2. Implementing ORDBMS is much more expensive than implementing relational database direction system in an administration.

3. Unclear if the ORDBMS will really unite relationships and encapsulated objects to right and wholly mirror to the existent universe objects.

4. Provision of linguistic communications, which will look terminal to SQL and will supply a migration way for bing SQL users.


“ OODBMS is a database direction system ( DBMS ) that supports the modeling and creative activity of informations as objects. This includes some sort of support for categories of objects and the heritage of category belongingss and methods by subclasses and their objects. ” ( ) OODBMS are DBMS which are based on an Object Oriented Data Model. This information theoretical accounts are frequently inspired by OO scheduling linguistic communications, such as C++ . OODBMS are capable of hive awaying complex objects, objects that are contain of other objects, and multivalve properties. The great advantage of OODBMS is that it is non necessary to transform the UML classes into a logical scheme unlike RDBMS. OODBMS operate on complex information expeditiously because elements of information are “ pre-joined ” together and stored as a whole in the database. That ‘s a major respect to RDBMS where elements of informations are stored in their simplest or normal signifiers in tabular arraies. To uncover relationships among informations in a relational database, these tabular arraies must be joined together nevertheless to bring out relationships in an OODBMS, objects organizing the relationships are merely fetched. OODBMS are typically based on a information transportation attack. Data points are shipped from waiters to clients so that question processing and application processing can be performed at the database. But the informations transportation attack does non order where in the system the function between objects and pages resides. Data-shipping moves the informations closer to the applications, leting to cut down the clip to interaction between the application and the DBMS. OODBMS express their petitions logically, in footings of objects. The objects themselves, nevertheless, are stored on disc in units of pages. Therefore, an OODBMS must pull off storage in footings of informations pages.

Features of OODBMS

The system must keep many-sided objects. Complex objects are built from simpler 1s by using builders to them. Supporting complex objects besides needs that suited operators must be provided for covering with such objects. Operationss on a complex object must distribute equivalent to all its constituents.

2. Multiple users can entree the database at same clip at the same time without making inconsistence consequence due to the interaction of coincident operation.

3. Users can make informations points which reside in relentless storage, instead than volatile memory without making files which contain the information and are referenced by their names.

4. Similar entity cases are classified into types or categories. Type defines as belongingss and operations which are available to direct its cases.

5. The relationship between entity types and cases are known to the system and can be utilized to explicate questions which span the information.

6. Objects can be assemblies of other object or objects are non limited to crude spheres. In the other words can name it as composing.

7. The set of operations, construction and constrain available to applications is non limited and fixed. Applications define new operations and construction which are used the same manner as the physique in construction and operations.

Advantages of OODMS

Object-oriented database construct is a more natural manner of position and it ‘s reclaimable, stable and dependable. The pre-defined activities on the system does non depends on type of application running on the system when it ‘s occurs.

2. Object oriented databases can be extended to keep complex informations such as audio picture, images, digital along with other multimedia operations.

3. OODBMS is that interactions are represented in openly, it ‘s tend to supply both navigational and associatory entree to information.

4. Users are reasonably much independent they can raise their ain system or methods of entree to informations in the database or how it should be represented or manipulated to the others.

5. This has extended databases into an unknown to RDBMS vision. Medicine, multimedia and energy natural philosophies are the new industries wholly trusting on OODBMS.

Disadvantages in OODBMS

1. Their engineering is immature and they are merely used in niche applications, such as CAD & A ; CAM.

2. AD-hoc questioning via media the encapsulation.

3. Locking the object degree public presentation.

4. OODBMS are much more complicated than the other two types of database direction systems.

5. Lack of support for the positions and deficient security characteristics.


Having placing what are the chief demands in the William Hill database system,

ORDBMS is the most suited database direction system out of all the others. Most

significantly comparison to the other direction system ORDBMS is the easiest to

implement and the most cost effectual. If they want, William Hill can take OODBMS

alternatively, but that will necessitate a big amount of money to implement and keep it

unnecessarily. Besides database decision makers want be able to utilize questions in OODBMS.

ORDBMS and ODBMS design to cover with much more complex, entree, hunt and

manipulate informations types and objects. William Hill database strictly trade with simple criterion

informations theoretical accounts and simple snap shootings ( transcripts of located stakes ) illustration: old consequence in text format, client record including his bets and winning, placed stakes, inside informations about participants, images of located stakes, athleticss and future competitions ect… .. As I explained in above ORDBMS is the drawn-out version of RDBMS. The friendly characteristic in an ORDBMS allows companies to transport on utilizing their current system, without holding to make any cardinal alterations. Besides Its gives an chance to companies to utilize parallel to the object oriented systems. Having such a database direction system is ideal for the William Hill to transport out their twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours concern.


Modern database applications need to hive away and command big objects or complex informations theoretical account and to execute operations on these multimedia objects that are non predefined. So ORDBM was created to manage those ORDBMS was created to manage multimedia informations such as sound, picture, and image files that RDBMS were non equipped to manage. Fast, dependable and scalable informations storage services are critical for a broad scope of applications today. The great merge of the two constructs, relational and object oriented programming database direction systems provides the footing for object relational databases system. Having great storage capacity, entree velocity and direction bids of object databases, makes ORDBMS more productive to get the better of the database market. Easy connectivity utilizing Bridgess with chief database sellers and its characteristics will do it the market leader in close hereafter.