ASSIGNMENT 1. Name- 2. Course- NCP 22 3. Course Title- Construction Personnel Management 4. Assignment No. – One Question:- You are a Project Manager on site where work for 3 km. long tunnel has been undertaken. The site is remote and takes about 2 days to travel to nearest town. Supervisors, technicians, and skilled workers are engaged in dangerous / hazardous work. Absenteeism due to sickness, quarrels, drinking is adding to less output of work and chances of accidents on site are increasing. Management has urged to do something so that time targets can be achieved.
Discuss how will you tackle the problem and increase the output of work. Solution:- Introduction of the main problems- 1. Absenteeism due to sickness 2. Absenteeism due to quarrels and drinking 3. Accidents at site 4. Technical problems Reasons of various problems- * Lack of Manpower Management (or) Planning * Un-hygienic surroundings and temporary accommodation * Lack of medication * Consumption of alcohol * Availability of alcohol * Storage of materials * Roof spalling * Water seepage Needs and their fulfillment on site- * Lack of Manpower Management (or) Planning:
Prepare a proper schedule of the project and assign resources to each task i. e. each activity, assigning resources means identify manpower required for each task and what is the availability of manpower and how much work has been done till date and how much work is to be done. Identify type of manpower required i. e. skilled (or) unskilled. If manpower is inadequate then try to get more manpower or try to use the available manpower fully so as to complete maximum amount of work and try to complete the urgent works such that it does not affect our project duration.
Reschedule the project and send updated schedule to head office and inform them weekly work progress so that they can help you overcome manpower problem (or) try to motivate the available manpower by giving extra benefits if they complete the project in time. If manpower is less then immediately inform the head office so that they can send some more manpower so that the project can run smoothly. * Suggestions and Recommendation to Management on Manpower Management (or) Planning: Management planning involves a few steps, if the Management and Project Manager follow these steps there will be no problem due to manpower in the project.
The tunnel project is a large project with large number of manpower involved in it and at different levels. The management has to monitor whether all are working properly or not, if not then they have to make some other arrangement and try to motivate the manpower so that the project can progress smoothly. Following are the steps: * Understand the project in all respects and get all the details of the project i. e. Site conditions, Contract conditions, Technical specifications, Construction techniques, and Time frame. Working out the labor component in various parameters of the project by using constants to work out labor requirement. * Classifying and categorizing labor requirements and various jobs by level of skill, responsibility, nature of work, etc. * Determine the duration of each job or task at every stage of the project. * Estimate the manpower required taking into view absenteeism, labor turnover and stability factor. Manpower Management has some principles that should be known by the Project Manager and the Management of the Company.
The principles are as follows- * Care and skill should be exercised in the selection of employees. * Introduction to the job should be friendly, skillful and adequate. * Each employee should be made to feel that his efforts are really appreciated. * Consideration should be given to the effect that each rule and instruction may have on the feelings of the employees. * Employees should have a part in planning those things that affect their working conditions. * Management should be absolutely fair in every policy and every practice. * Each employee should have a feeling of pride in the worthiness of his and his company.
Based on the construction program and various other norms , the administrative set-up is worked out for completion of the project. It is proposed to have two Chief Engineers (Level-1), one for head work and other for canal and canal structures headed by the Project manager. Under the Chief Engineer (Head work) four circle offices will be proposed and under the Chief Engineer (Canal and canal structures) three circle offices will be proposed. There will also be one Director (Administration), one Director (Finance), one Director (Quality), and one Director (Technical) under the Project Manager.
There will also be attached Superintendent Engineer (Mechanical) under each Chief Engineer. All these offices will be suitably located for effective monitoring and control over the execution of the project. A chart showing the administrative set-up is shown below- * Un-hygienic surroundings and Temporary Accommodation: Before starting of the project, the Management has to plan well how to maintain hygienic working conditions at site. This project is of long duration and so the manpower involved is more, hence it is one of the preliminary needs of the employees and workers. Suggestion methods to maintain Hygiene factor: Management has to well plan for the temporary shelters considering the number of workers involved in the project and how many shelters are required and for different category of employees who will be working at site. It is needed to consider the different types of shelters that should be constructed with respective facilities, the materials required for construction of the shelters and the time needed to complete them as it’s important for these to get completed before starting of the project.
Management should built temporary shelters for workers who will be working at site because the site is at remote area and travelling will be very inconvenient for the workers, hence it is one of the preliminary requirements of the workers and the management should take extra precautions. A site office should also be built with all necessary requirements; drinking water should be drinkable as most diseases are spread by water, so it is an important step to be taken care by the management. * Lack of Medication:
Management should send a medical team at site and they should stay there till completion of the project. They should be supplied with the necessary equipments and medical kits so that they can manage any hazardous situation i. e. any sudden accidents can be handles, in case of occurrence of any epidemic they can overcome the situation. By this the work will progress smoothly and the number of worker absenteeism will be reduced. Worker who is sick will be taken care by the medical team so that he can recover quickly and resume work. * Consumption and availability of Alcohol:
This is a major problem with labor as they drink daily after work so that they get some relief from whole days work and body pains. The management should not allow consumption of alcohol or restrict its availability to per person such that it is enough to get him goodnight sleep. In case of easy availability of alcohol there are chances that the workers will drink all night and next day don’t go to work which will cause frequent absenteeism; also excess alcohol causes quarrels and fights which can cause absenteeism and also affect the work environment thus in turn affecting the project progress.
If quarrels are happening frequently due to alcohol consumption, then the management has to take some precautionary steps to handle the problem such as avoid the availability of alcohol near the site so that the labor cannot consume much alcohol and the problem is solved and the project can continue progressing smoothly. * Storage of Materials: This is also a major problem for such a big project and since the site is a remote area materials will be at site well before start of the project, so store rooms should be properly built well in advance so that it will not create a problem while execution of work.
In order to have an uninterrupted supply of materials the management should know what all materials will be required by the workers on site and its number or quantity. All this quantities should be planned well in advance as the cost of the project also depends on this. * Roof Spalling: The management should have complete knowledge of what all technical problem may occur while execution of work and it has to take proper precautions. All this should be well planned before so that the project duration is not affected.
The management should know the causes of the problems and its solutions. The cause of roof spalling is type of formation of rock, rock with excess of foliations, joint and poor rock mass leads to roof spalling. * Suggestion and Methods to overcome Roof Spalling Problem: * Tunnel should be properly scaled to remove loose rock mass and cement grouting should be done so that the rock will get some extra strength and can hold itself properly and will not fall down easily. Tunnel should have proper provision of steel ribs so that it will be well supported on the steel ribs and work can progress smoothly and the Project manager should have all these materials on site well in advance as these materials are required suddenly. * Water Seepage: The management should have complete knowledge of what all technical problem may occur while execution of project and management should take proper precautions which are to be well planned in advance so that it would not affect the project duration. The main cause for water seepage is due to the discontinuous rock formation, Ground water table height, etc. Suggestions and Methods to overcome Water Seepage problem: While designing the tunnel it is critical to have well designed and effective drainage system because if there is any water is accumulating in the tunnel, it will affect the progress of work. Therefore, the drainage system should be such that the water accumulated is quickly drained away from working area without affecting it. Another solution is to do proper grouting so that the rock will get more strength and it will stop the water from seeping into the tunnel. This is one of the easiest methods to overcome the seepage problem.
The other method to overcome the seepage problem is by covering the tunnel section with water proofing membranes. * Recommendation to Management: Top Management should be more responsible and should carefully monitor the progress of work and all urgent needs at site should be fulfilled as quickly as possible. It should ensure that the middle and lower management is working properly. In case of any accidents or hazardous situations, the top management should openly help the middle and lower management in all possible ways so that they can overcome the situation.
They should send a team to the site to help the middle and lower management to handle and overcome the situation hence allowing the work to progress smoothly. Since the tunnel project is a very large project and will take a lot of time to get completed, the management has to be well prepared for all fore coming situations i. e. labor problems, absenteeism, etc. Management has to ensure that the functions of each level of management is clear amongst everybody and should monitor each employees performance; whether he is doing his duties properly or not. * Functions of Top Management : . Determining the objectives. 2. Framing polices and making plans to carry out the objectives and policies. 3. Setting up the organizational framework to conduct the operation as per plans. 4. Gathering the resources needed to put the plans into effect. 5. Controlling the operations through the organization. Middle management is concerned with the task of implementing the policies and plans chalked out by the top management. Middle management consists of departmental heads exercising the usual functions of management in respect of their own departments.
They have to plan the operations, issue instructions to their assistants; collect the resources required and control the work of the men under them. * Functions of Middle Management : 1. Understanding the policies framed by top management. 2. Preparing the organizational set-up n their departments. 3. Finding out the suitable operative and supervisory personnel and fixing duties and responsibilities to them. 4. Arranging and issuing instructions to the assistants and operatives. 5. Motivating the personnel for higher productivity. . Co-operating with other departments for smooth functioning of organization. 7. Collecting reports, statistical information, and other records about the work turned out in the respective departments and forwarding the same to the top management. 8. Recommending to the top management new or revised policies for their respective departments to obtain better performance. * Lower Level Management : It is the lowest level in the administrative framework and actual operations are performed here.
Foremen supervisors assisted by a number of workers and clerks carry out the actual operations as per schedule. Their authority and responsibility is limited and they have to follow the guideline drawn by the higher levels of management. The foremen and supervisors are responsible for carrying out work orders allotted to their respective departments. They pass on the instructions from the middle management to the workers. The quality of workmanship and quality of output will depend upon the hard labor, discipline and loyalty of the operating personnel. Motivation of Employees in Construction Project : Motivation is the driving force within individuals that drive them physiologically and psychologically to pursue one or more goals to fulfill their needs or expectations. Motivators may be intrinsic or extrinsic. An example of an intrinsic motivator is the self-fulfillment of a worker as a result of performing task well. * Motivation of Labor in Construction Project : Construction labor can be motivated. This is important because dwindling productivity is a major problem confronting construction today.
Productivity has been decreasing every year for the past decade, partly because of increasing design complexity, more rigorous state and federal regulations and socio-economic changes affecting the work force. Our findings indicate that a highly motivated workforce enhances productivity and project effectiveness. In construction, the work itself- that is the building of a structure for all to behold is a key motivator for all levels of management and work force. Therefore, a well planned project seems to be the first and most important step to achieve good productivity.
Unfortunately, on large industrial projects, craftsmen often receive only minimal amounts of information about their work. Duplication of effort, numerous modifications to plans and schedules that consistently slip makes it difficult to maintain a motivated workforce. On large power plants, changes in designs and problems with material availability are considered major demotivating factors. With effective pre-planning, the availability of materials can be checked before workers are assigned to an area so that workers do not start work in one location only to have to be shifted to another location.
Care in this respect will only improve worker motivation and productivity and help promote a high level of accomplishment. Most foremen and craftsmen take considerable pride in the work they do. Having to rip out their work and redo it can be extremely discomforting. In fact, if it is extensive, redoing parts of a project may be the worst demotivator of all. Craftsmen view overcrowded conditions and crew interference due to extensive rework as demotivating. Worse, such problems can create hostile feelings as a result of frustration. Design standardization can help to minimize rework and improve morale. Motivational Programs : Although some unique motivational programs were found, the vast majority can be grouped into five primary categories:- a. Goal setting b. Incentives c. Positive reinforcement (i. e. recognition for a job well done) d. Worker participation e. Work facilitation The following present a dissertation on each of the five categories discussing first their use in other industries and then their application in construction. a. Absenteeism and Turnover:- The Department of Energy study indicated that the absenteeism and turnover are a relatively minor concern to workmen.
Still, it can have a major impact on total project productivity. High rates of absenteeism are a concern, especially to individuals who have to carry extra workload to compensate for the missing crewmembers. Low job satisfaction results in high absence from work and high turnover. Thus absenteeism and turnover can be viewed as effects of motivational activities or demotivational concerns. The costs of motivational programs are often justified by the reduced absenteeism and turnover. For example, the cost of M2 group Engineering Pvt. Ltd. nd Big Designing and Construction Company on eight projects has been more than paid for by the reduction in absenteeism and the reduced costs associated with hiring fewer workmen. Director indicated that it required some amount of time per employee to process paper work plus two to three weeks of each new employee’s time to learn the job. Again, the figures on attendance and turnover measure the motivational effort that is financially justified. Moreover, awards for good records are perhaps the most effective method to decrease absenteeism. Bibliography:- Management in Organization by Koontz and Odoneal, Macgraw Hill Publication