Nitesh of Integrated GPS-GSM based tracking system with

Nitesh M Soragavi,
Prateek P Kulkarni, Prof. V Mahadevan, Telecommunication Engineering, PES
Institute of Technology, Bangalore



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The prototype model of Integrated GPS-GSM based
tracking system with Geo Fencing designed and developed makes use of the global
positioning system to determine the precise location of an object, person or
other asset to which it is attached and using GSM modem this information can be
transmitted to remote user and which can further be used with a virtual
boundary (Geo-fence) to enhance tracking/surveillance. This system contains
single-board embedded system that is equipped with GPS and GSM modems along
with ARM processor that is installed in the vehicle. During object motion, its
location can be reported by SMS message. A software package is developed to
read, process, analyze and store the incoming SMS messages. A predefined
boundary by storing the corner points in a database, is used along with normal
vehicle tracking system. The points received from GPS-GSM module is given as
input to the Geo fence, based on which notification is issued accordingly. The
performance of the proposed system has been evaluated in real time. Results
and conclusion are drawn from the evaluation made.





The development of satellite communication
technology is easy to identify the vehicle locations. Vehicle tracking systems
have brought this technology to the day-to-day life of the common person. Today
GPS used in cars, ambulances, fleets and police vehicles are common sights on
the roads of developed countries. All the existing technologies support
tracking the vehicle’s place and status. The GPS/GSM Based System is one of the
most important systems, which integrate both GSM and GPS technologies 6. This
system designed for users in land construction and transport business, provides
real-time information such as location, speed and expected arrival time in a
concise and easy-to-read format. This system may also be used for communication
process between two points.

















When large object or vehicles were spread out
over ground, the owner corporations often found it difficult to keep track of
what was happening. They required some type of system to determine where each
object was at any given time and for how long it travelled. Also the need of
tracking in consumer’s vehicle use to prevent any kind of theft because police
can use tracking reports to locate stolen vehicle 5.

GSM and GPS based vehicle tracking system will
provide effective, real time vehicle location and reporting this information
adds value by improving the level of service provided 1. A GPS-based vehicle
tracking system will inform where your vehicle is and where it has been. The
system uses geographic position and time information from the

Global Positioning Satellites. The system has an
“On-Board Module” which resides in the vehicle to be tracked and a
“Base Station” that monitors data from the various vehicles 4.


Geo-Fencing is a promising technique for emerging
location based services. Advancements in positioning techniques and mobile
communications have enabled location based services which have been integrated
into networking platforms. The widespread use of smart phones also generates
growing need for geo-fencing applications. This method is implemented using
crossing number algorithm i.e. detecting whether a point is inside a polygon or
not thus providing notifications to users when they enter or exit the
geo-fences 8.


One of the important features of
GPS Tracking devices developed here is geo-fencing and its ability to
help keep track of assets. Geo-fencing allows users of a GPS Tracking Solution
to draw zones (i.e., a Geo Fence) around places of work, customer’s sites and
secure areas. These geo fences when crossed by a GPS equipped vehicle or person
can trigger a warning to the user or operator via SMS or Email. For
example, users can be alerted to discounts
with e-coupons when walking through a mall, or to “don’t forget the milk” —
users can set their own reminder notifications based off of location; also, social
networking 9.

A geo-fence could be dynamically generated—as in
a radius around a store or point location or it can be a predefined set of
boundaries, like school attendance zones or neighborhood boundaries 9.


Custom-digitized geofences are also in use. In
the proposed work, we have implemented a geofence as a predefined boundary by
storing the corner points in a database 8. Thus, the basic purpose of
notification being served.


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The hardware design details of the developed system are presented in
the following section:


NXP (founded by Philips) LPC2129


The NXP (founded by Philips) LPC2129 is an ARM7TDMI-S based
high-performance 32-bit RISC Microcontroller with Thumb extensions 256KB
on-chip Flash ROM with In-System Programming (ISP) and In-Application
Programming (IAP) 16KB RAM, Vectored Interrupt Controller, Two UARTs, I2C
serial interface, 2 SPI serial interfaces Two timers (7 capture/compare
channels), PWM unit with up to 6 PWM outputs, 4-channels 10bit ADC, 2 CAN
channels. Real Time Clock, Watchdog Timer, General purpose I/O pins. CPU clock
up to 60 MHz, On-chip crystal oscillator and On-chip PL. This generation
introduced the Thumb 16 -bit instruction set providing improved code density
compared to previous designs. The most widely used ARM7 designs implement the
ARMv4T architecture, but some implement ARMv3or ARMv5TEJ. All these designs use
a  Von Neumann architecture, thus the few versions comprising a cache do not separate data and
instruction caches 3.
















Fig 1:
LPC 2129 ARM processor


ARM is a family of  instruction set architectures for  computer processors based on a  reduced instruction set  computing (RISC)  architecture developed by British company  ARM Holdings. A RISC-based computer design approach means ARM
processors require significantly fewer transistors than typical  CISC x86 processors in most  personal computers. This approach reduces costs, heat and power use.

microcontroller (MCU) architecture has become the de facto standard for 32-bit
microcontrollers with its broad adoption in the embedded market and widespread
support from software companies. Standardization on ARM microcontroller cores
has now made it easier than ever to port code from one 32-bit microcontroller
to another. As a result, the deciding factor in MCU selection is the shift from
the CPU core architecture to the peripheral set and the innovative ways in
which MCU vendors address system-design issues 4.


Comparing this architecture with 89c51/52 arm microcontroller has 2
port support and memory larger than the latter. Also taking into account cost,
availability criteria and our requirements, the usage may be justified.

GSM Module (SIM300)

The GSM modem is a specialized type of modem
which accepts a SIM card operates on a subscriber’s mobile number over a
network, just like a cellular phone. It is a cell phone without display. Modem
sim300 is a triband GSM/GPRS engine that works on EGSM900MHz, DCS1800MHz and
PCS1900MHz frequencies. GSM Modem is RS232-logic level compatible, i.e., it
takes-3v to -15v as logic high and +3v to +15 as logic low.MAX232 is used to
convert TTL into RS232 logic level converter used between the microcontroller
and the GSM board. The signal at pin 11 of the microcontroller is sent to the
GSM modem through pin 11 of max232.this signal is received at pin2 (RX) of the
GSM modem. The GSM modem transmits the signal from pin3 (TX) to the
microcontroller through MAX232, which is received at pin 10 of IC1 3.
















Fig 2:
GSM Module

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a
satellite-based navigation system. GPS receiver is used for this research work
to detect the vehicle location and provide information to responsible person
through GSM technology. The position is given by satellite in terms of latitude
and longitude.


LATITUDE: degrees + minutes + seconds


LONGITUDE: degrees + minutes + seconds


The hardware interfaces for GPS units are
designed to meet NMEA requirements. The GPS receiver provides data in NMEA
0183format with a 1Hz update rate. Generally message received by GPS is in NMEA
National Marine Electronics Association message format and NMEA protocol
which is most commonly used is NMEA0183 protocol. GPS sentences beginning with
the following specifications:

common NMEA Sentence used for location is:




GPGGA format of the
NMEA string contains the required Geographical Positioning information and the
time frame reference. Since this format satisfies our basic needs of getting
the co-ordinates from the GPS, hence we are using this format.


Software Package developed for Geofencing and GPS/GSM module has been
explained in the flowcharts below.



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Fig 3:
GPS Module


























4: Flow chart for GPS GSM based vehicle tracking system.

























5: Flow chart for Geo Fencing system















Fig 6:
Vehicle tracking system

Complete system as shown in figure 4 contains
complete connection of 32-bit ARM processor along with GSM and GPS system. The
position is displayed to the cell phone from which request was sent (owner or
owners). With this system it becomes easy for the users to keep track of their
objects. Vehicle position in terms of latitude and longitude can easily be
traced out.












7: Vehicle tracking system notification


To evaluate the performance of the proposed
tracking device, the real time results were taken by GPS based Navigator System
as shown in the table below. The locations tabulated in fourth column of table
are real time locations but for brevity they are written in symbolic form. This
system can be used for geographical surveys for generating the Longitude,
Latitude and Altitude information for the required locations. This system can
be used for In-Motion Tracking system. With a front end application build on
this, it can serve as Fleet Management system to manage large fleets of
vehicles and keep a central control for tracking and guiding the vehicles
across the country or anywhere in the world.

1: Results of GPS GMS based system


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Geo fencing


developed prototype for geo-fencing uses a predefined set of boundaries. These
geo-fences when crossed by an equipped vehicle or person can trigger a warning
to the user via SMS notifying the location.


co-ordinates of the geo-fence created are stored in the database. The Crossing
Polygon Algorithm compares the received point from the vehicle tracking (input from the user) with the
co-ordinates in the database and gives results accordingly.





10: Results for an inside Point with Geofence Module










8: Satellite view of the fence


The developed software package for Geofencing was
subjected to different points. A random point not present on the defined
geo-fence (route) see Fig 8, when given as an input to the designed software
was correctly notified as outside (see Fig 11). In the same way, when the
system was run and a coordinate point inside the fence entered, then Geofence
module developed rightly notified as the point being inside the border (see Fig
10) . The results

(See Fig 8, 9, 10, 11) are as follows:


For example:


078.425718E (INSIDE POINT)


078.430626E (OUTSIDE POINT)
















Fig 9: Inside and Outside points as on maps.













Fig 11: Results for outside point with Geofence module




This work integrates together GPS GSM based
tacking system with geo fencing using crossing polygon algorithm so that when the object or vehicle being tracked enters
or exits the area under consideration, a notification is generated. The
fence as such has been implemented by making
a database of the corner points of the polygon or fence. The prototype model
developed sends a reply when SMS (authorization) is sent and the position of
the vehicle in terms of latitude and longitude is reported as a result. This
coordinate can therefore be given as an input to the Geofence, to track it

Tracking system is becoming increasingly
important in large cities and it is more secured than other systems. If the
power requirements are satisfied, then it is completely integrated so that once
it is implemented in all vehicles, then it is possible to track anytime and
anywhere. It has real-time capability, emerges in order to strengthen the
relations among people, vehicle and road by putting modern information
technologies together and able to form a real time accurate, effective comprehensive
transportation system 3.This system has many advantages such as large
capability, wide areas range, low operation costs, effective, Strong expandability
and Easy to use in vehicle traffic administration. Upgrading this setup is very
easy which makes it open to future expansion that makes it more efficient. Geofencing
can therefore be used in many applications like location based services, geotagging
and telematics 8, 9.



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This project can be enhanced in future by
modifying the software to find out the actual position of the vehicle and also
in accident prevention by automatically locking all the brakes. During the
accident, the accelerometer sensor will be triggered due to vibrations which is
received and processed by the processor. The processor should be connected to
devices which can lock the brakes when triggered. Vehicle tracking and locking
systems can be used to track the location of vehicle in case of theft by using
GPS and GSM technology 1. Performance characteristics of the vehicle such as
speed, temperature and fuel can be monitored. Also if one vehicle can be made
to communicate with other vehicles automatically, it will be helpful during
emergencies 2. Ex: If one ship is sinking it can send a message to a nearby
ship about its location and hence people can be rescued.


Users of smart phones, tablets, and other devices
expect position with the highest level of accuracy, always available, with the
least amount of power consumed. One recent improvement fulfilling this demand
involves operating-system services for location on smart phones, and the
evolution towards lower power solutions. Geo-fencing applications run in the
background for long periods of time, and their main task is to compute
positions (fixes) without the need of assistance from other applications. An
ultra-low-power GNSS position solution, or always-on positioning solution, is
desirable for these scenarios.


Although state of the art methods such as
crossing number algorithm can address predicates of geo-fencing, it is difficult
to realize real-time geo-fencing service with millions of points and hundreds
of polygons. An efficient geo-fencing application using edge based locality
sensitive hashing to quickly locate potential geo-edges for geographic data
sets can be implemented in the future 9.



“GPS and GPRS Based Cost Effective Human Tracking System Using
Mobile Phones” by Ruchika Gupta and BVR Reddy in VIEWPOINT Journal Jan –
June 2011.


Baburao Kodavati, V.K.Raju, S.Srinivasa Rao, A.V.Prabu, T.Appa
Rao,Dr.Y.V.Narayana in International Journal of Engineering Research and
Applications (IJERA).


“Designing and Implementing GPS based Navigation System for Location
based Services” by Sonal N.Parmar at International Conference on
Technology Systems and Management (ICTSM) 2011 Proceedings published by
International Journal of Computer Applications® (IJCA).


“Geofencing Components and Existing Models” by Anthony .C. Ijeh,
David .S. Preston, Chris .O. Imafidon, Titus .B. Watmon, Annette .O. Uwaechie,
Aaron Nwadube, Ebrina Kujabi presented AT IMECS CONFERENCE 2011.


“Geo-fencing: Confining Wi-Fi Coverage to Physical Boundaries”
by Anmol Sheth, Srinivasan Seshan, and David Wetherall LNCS 2009


1. ” Vehicle Tracking and Locking
System Based on GSM and GPS” –by R.Ramani, S.Valarmathy, N.Suthanthira
Vanitha, S.Selvaraju,M.Thiruppathi at I.J. Intelligent Systems and
Applications, 2013, 09, 86-93.


2. GPS Based Automatic Vehicle Tracking Using RFID
Devyani Bajaj, Neelesh Gupta published in International Journal of
Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 1, Issue 1, January 2012.


3. GPS – GSM Based Tracking System
by Abid khan, Ravi Mishra at International Journal of Engineering Trends
and Technology- Volume3Issue2- 2012.


4. “Hybrid GPS-GSM Localization of Automobile
Tracking System ” by Mohammad A. Al-Khedher published in International
Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 3, No 6,
Dec 2011.

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