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Eutrophication or more
precisely hypertrophication, is a water body enriched with
nutrients,with an excess amount of it.Certain nutrients are needed for survival of the
living thing.Primarily,nature is efficient enough to provide right amount of
nutrients,not less nor too much. This is absolutely true in aquatic ecosystems
because they are so dynamic.Water will be oligotrophic if there is too much
Consequently,serious problems will occur if there is no nutrients in the
aquatic environment of the organisms.However,
problems can also occur when there is too much nutrients too. When this occur
we get eutrophication. A eutrophic stream, river or lake occurs when too many nutrients,such
as nitrogen and phosphorous, are present, usually as a result of overflow of
the land. Algae, plankton and other microorganisms attracted to these types of
nutrients, and when they are too much these aquatic organisms can take over.
When eutrophication occurs in a lake, river or other aquatic system,it gives a
negative impact on the organisms itself including humans,birds and fishes.


Clearing of trees or removal
of trees from the forest to make it into non-forest is called deforestation and
it is also used for urban development.Conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use are also examples
of deforestation.Tropical rainforests are the most common
deforestation area.One of the largest and severe issue in global land is none
other than deforestation. Croplands and grazing lands are estimated area
regarding deforestation which includes cutting down trees for wood products and
so on due to urban usage.Due to this,whole forest is no more and wiped out due
to no more trees left in the forest. In some cases,forest structure would be
altered if illegal logging and so called accidental fire occurs.The practice
of slash-and-burn agriculture is
the major contributor for deforestation.Small-scale farmers clear land produces
for only a few years and then must forests by burning them and then grow crops
in the soils fertilized by the
ashes.In Southeast Asia such as Indonesia, tropical Africa, and the Americas
for permanent oil palm plantations practice
open fire burning to clear out the forests.



c) Global Warming

observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system and
its related effects called Global warming commonly known as climate change,The increase of average world temperatures as a result of
what is known as the greenhouse effect is global warming too. In
greenhouse,certain gases in the atmosphere acts like glass, sunlight is allowed
to heat the earth’s surface but it radiates back to the space if we trap the
heat. The Earth gets hotter when the greenhouse gases build up in the
atmosphere.Consequently,this phenomena is called climate change.Since
the mid-20th century the Scientist have gathered detailed observations of
various weather phenomena
(such as temperatures, precipitation,
and storms) and of related influences on climate (such
as ocean
currents and the atmosphere’s chemical composition).
Earth’s climate indicated that it has changed
over almost every conceivable timescale since the beginning of time and that
the influence of human activities
since at least the beginning of the Industrial
Revolution has been deeply contributed to the climate

d) Ozone depletion

Ozone is very important
and crucial to us and gives us the pros and cons.As
a result of many chemical reaction regarding air pollution which caused by
heavy traffic and UV light formed ozone near the ground which eventually caused
a lot of respiratory problems particularly for children and the elderly.However,the stratosphere, ozone
filters out incoming radiation from the Sun in the cell-damaging ultraviolet (UV)
part of the spectrum are known as high up in the atmosphere in a region.Life on
earth would not have evolved in the way it has without this ozone layer. Single-celled organisms such as algae that make up
the bottom rung of the food chain inhibits the reproductive cycle of
phytoplankton with the help of extra UV B radiation shone onto Earth.The only
thing fears the Biologist is that reductions in other animals due to low number
of phytoplankton..Excess ultraviolet B.Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals
found mainly in spray aerosols heavily used by industrialized
nations for much of the past 50 years, are the primary culprits in ozone layer
breakdown which ultimately causes the change in the reproductive rates of young
fish, shrimp, and crabs as well as frogs and salamanders.UV breaks down into substance
such as chlorine due to CFC in the upper atmosphere exposed to UV.Chlorine
reacts with the oxygen particle and tears down the ozone.


When pollutants contaminate the natural
surroundings; which changes our normal lifestyles quickly is called pollution.Our
ecosystem and the balance in the environment are disturbed due to pollution.
Pollution occurs in Different forms of pollution can be found such as air,
water, soil, radioactive, noise, heat/ thermal and light.There are two sources
of pollution occurrence; the point and the non-point sources.The non-point
sources are hard to control whereas the point sources are easier to
identify,monitor and control.Firstly,Air pollution
is a contamination of natural air with dangerous gases.It is one of the major
contributor to environmental pollution.  Land
pollution occurs due to excess of dumping of toxic waste. This can be a
chemical or other waste material.Sound pollution called
as noise pollution is a disturbance of silent environment with loud
noises.Radiation pollution is the pollution due to abnormal
radiation in the environment. This occurs due to use of radioactive elements
from atomic energy stations.Thermal pollution arises because
of excess heat from thermal power plants,
industries involved in metal molding.Water pollution is mainly about
harmful toxic substances thrown by ignorant humans or released as residue by
irresponsible companies.In other cases,ships release their unwanted oil into
the sea.

f) Acid deposition

Any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, elevated levels of hydrogen ions
(low pH) is known as Acid
deposition.Plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure had negative impacts due
to acid deposition.Emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with
the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce
acids is called acid deposition.Wet and dry are the two types of deposition.Rain, snow, fog, hail
or even dust that is acidic are included in the type of acid deposition.Dry deposition consist of acidic
particles and gases from atmosphere in the absence of moisture.During
atmospheric the acidic particles and gases may deposit to surfaces (water
bodies, vegetation, buildings) quickly or may react to form larger particles
that can be harmful to human health. This acidic water flows over and through
the ground, and can harm plants and wildlife, such as insects and fish when the
accumulated acids are washed off a surface by the next rain.The amount of
rainfall an area receives depends on the  amount of acidity in the atmosphere that
deposits to earth through dry deposition.For instance,the ratio of dry to wet
deposition is higher than an area that receives several inches of rain each year
in the desert areas.

Causes and why it happens


Fertilizers (nitrates
and phosphates)

Ignorant human actions predominantly causes Eutrophication.Nutrient
accumulation consists of agricultural
practices and the use of
fertilizers on lawns, golf courses, and other fields. Surface runoff into
lakes, rivers, oceans and other surface waters washes away these nutrients with
high concentrations of phosphorous and nitrogen when it rains, photosynthesis
activity of the hungry plankton, algae and other aquatic plant life increases and
well fed.Dense growth of algal blooms and plant life in the aquatic
environments are the consequence of this.

Concentrated animal
feeding operations

Phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients and Concentrated animal feeding
operations (CAFOs) are the main contributor for eutrophication. The nutrients are
normally discharged through animal feeding that finds way into rivers, streams,
lakes, and oceans whereby accumulation occur in large quantity with recurring
cyanobacterial and algal blooms plaguing the water bodies.

Direct sewage
discharge and industrial waste into water bodies

water is directly discharged into water bodies such as rivers, lakes, and
oceans in some parts of the world, especially the
developing nations. As a result, it stimulates the dense growth of algal blooms
and other aquatic plants which threatens survival of aquatic life in many ways
due to the newly introduced high amounts of chemical nutrients.

The sewage water may also be treated by some countries,but it is still
discharged into the water after the treatment. Causing of the accumulation of
excess nutrients, ultimately bringing about eutrophication,as much as the water
is treated. Similar outcomes are present when direct discharge of industrial waste
water into water bodies.



Natural events

Floods and the
natural flow of rivers and streams are natural events which can prevent excessive
growth of algal blooms by washing away the excess nutrients off the land into
the water systems.Accumulation of sediments as well as phosphorus and nitrogen
nutrients which contribute to the explosive growth of phytoplankton and
cyanobacterial blooms will occur as lakes grow old.

















The process of Eutrophication

Two essential nutrients such as Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus
(P) are needed by aquatic plants (like any other plants) to grow.Small amounts
of nutrients required and occur in a healthy lake. But,major water pollution problem will be created if in
large quantities.The rapid growth of plants and algae, clogging waterways and
sometimes creating blooms of toxic blue-green algae due to stimulation of too
many nutrients.Eutrophication is the processs.Result of this, large
amount of oxygen (O2) are used up due to the
death of plants and decomposition of algae.So.fish and other aquatic species
oxygen level will be reduced from the availability.A complete oxygenless
environment that can support nothing except a few species of anaerobic bacteria
will occur in extreme cases.Fish and other aquatic life will be killed and the
aesthetic and recreational value of the lake would be reduced.Nitrates are the
nutrients found in sewage and fertilizers, and phosphates found in detergents
and fertilizers.A process called cultural eutrophication is the human inputs of nutrients from
the atmosphere and from nearby urban and agricultural areas can accelerate
the natural eutrophication of lakes.
Domestic sewage, industrial wastes and storm
drainage are the examples where nutrients from urban sources derived.There is a
considerable range where the contribution of nitrogen and phosphorus per person per day averages 10.8 g
N and 2.2 g P.Detergents were developed containing sodium tripolyphosphate,
which softens water by neutralizing calcium and keeps dirt in suspension once
it has washed off clothes in the   
1940s.Cultural eutrophication in lakes happens due to the principal
sources of nutrient overload.Types and amounts of human activities occurring in
each airshed and watershed varied according to amount of each source.

Refer to Appendix A for further information




B) Deforestation

Agricultural Activities

 One of the major factors affecting Deforestation
is agricultural activities.Huge amount of tress are fell down to grow crops and
for cattle gazing due to overgrowing demand for food products.

Illegal Logging

amount of wood supply are prominent for wood based industries like paper,
match-sticks, furniture etc., Therefore trees are chopped for supplies since wood
is used as fuel both directly and indirectly.Examples of wood being used as
fuel are firewood and charcoal.These industries thrive on illegal wood cutting
and felling of trees


construction of roads are undertaken; here again trees are chopped to create
roads in order to gain access to the forest.Forest covers, as with the expansion
of cities more land are affected by too direct overpopulation needs to
establish housing and settlements.Hence,forest land is reclaimed.

Desertification of land

of land is the some of the other factors that lead to deforestation are also
part natural and part anthropogenic.Growth of trees is not possible due to land
abuse making it unfit.Soil erosion occurs and making it unfit to grow
plants and trees due to many industries in petrochemicals release their waste
into rivers.


considerable amount of forest land is required for oil and coal mining. Apart from this,roads and highways
have to be built to make way for trucks and other equipment.Pollution of the
environment occur
and affects the nearby species due to the waste that comes out from the mining.

Forest Fires

example would be forest blazes;Forest fires in various portions of the world
destroys hundreds of trees each year.Extreme warm summers and milder winters.
Fires, whether causes by man or nature results in huge loss of forest cover due
to this.




Palm oil has its potential
as a biofuel and nowadays packaged foods  and beauty products are using palm oil in
it.Another cause of deforestation is palm oil.Many  Indonesian and Malaysian farmers
destroy acres of trees to harvest it due to rising prices make it more
valuable.Several countries are currently debating a ban on palm oil as a
biofuel for this reason.

Trees are cut down to
make more room for houses and roads as cities grow larger to accommodate more
people. Now that 50 percent of the world’s population lives in cities, this urban
sprawl deforestation is occurring worldwide.












Process of Deforestation

Firstly, the main method of clearing trees for small farmers and plantation
owners in the tropics Slash and Burn agriculture. This is because to remove
unwanted parasites and organisms that reside in the desired land is the only
way to do  effectively.During season
between June and October the burning usually happens. 20% of the fires in the
world can be attributed to deforestation during this period. In order to
release the minerals in the trees back into the soil, the trees are cut down
and then later burned.Soil in the tropics so very poor and nutrient deficient
hence minerals are needed in the soil. After the first burn which only lasted
for a few years due to the nutrients that are released into the soil due to
the rain washing them away and their use for agriculture. Between 3 and 20
years after the trees  removed,this can
happen anywhere. In order for the farmer to keep turning a profit, he will
need to clear a new section of land and start over again at this time.

Removing all the trees and vegetation, regardless of species, leaving
the land completely bare is example of clear-cutting a forest.Scientists have
no idea how long it takes the forest to recover since nothing is left on the
land. A method used both to clear the land and harvest trees for commercial
logging purposes is Clear-cutting.The most destructive of all methods because
nothing is left but the soil which is not even replenished by a burn is clear

Only certain trees are chosen to be cut down in selective logging.Research
shows that during Selective logging, only about 3% of the trees are harvested
are shown during the research. About 3%, and 49% of the trees are damaging in
the process of harvesting. Selective logging is a relatively short 50 years,the
period that it takes for vegetation to grow back in. This is because there
are patches of tree left to disperse seeds and provide shade for the
developing seedlings from too much sun.