Government- the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies; made up of those people who exercise its powers, those who have authority and control over people Powers- Legislative power- the power to make law and frame public policies Executive power- the power to execute, enforce, and administer law Judicial power- the power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning, and to settle disputes that arise within society Sovereignty- it has supreme and absolute power within its own territory and can decide its own foreign and domestic policies.Not subordinate or responsible to any other authority, can frame its economic system and shape it’s own foreign policies. The states in the United States are NOT sovereign; they are under direct control of the constitution. State- a body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically, with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority.
There are more than 190 states in the world, based on population, territory, sovereignty, and government. The Force Theory- the state was born a force. Hold that one person or a small group claims control over an area and forced all within it to submit to that person or group’s rule.
The 4 basic elements of a state were already present The Evolutionary Theory- state developed naturally out of the early family, in the primitive family, one person was the head or “government” of family, then became clans, then tribes, then agricultural societies, then the state was born The Divine Right Theory- god created the state and god had given those of royal birth a “divine right” to rule the people, people were bound to obey their ruler as they would obey God, disobeying that was treason and a mortal sin The Social Contract Theory- Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau developed this, Individuals were only as safe as their own physical strength and intelligence allowed them to be, overcame this by agreeing to create a state, by a contract people within a given area agreed to give up to the state as much power as was needed to promote the safety and well being of all.Arose out of a voluntary act of the free people Direct democracy- where the will of the people is translated into public policy directly by the people themselves, in mass meetings, only works in small communities Indirect democracy (representative)- small group of people are chosen by the people to be their representatives, people can cast ballots for or against their representatives. Representatives listen to the people and carry out what the majority wants The Purposes of government stated in the Preamble Form a more perfect union- the government that the articles established was powerless to overcome the intense rivalries and jealousies among the states that marked the time.Adopted the constitution to link the United States more closely together and had the belief that in union there is strength Establish justice- the law, in both its content and its administration, must be reasonable, fair, and impartial Ensure domestic tranquility- order is essential to the well being of any society; a keeping the peace at home has always been a prime function of government Provide for the common defense- defending the nation against foreign enemies has always been one of government’s major responsibilities Promote the general welfare- the government acts as a servant to the public, i. e. public schools, rules about quality of air, water, etc.
they provide services to benefit all or most people Secure the blessings of liberty- no one can be free to do whatever he or she pleases, that interferes with the freedoms of others; to preserve and protect rights, each generation must learn and understand them and be willing to stand up for them. Comes from patriotism- the love of one’s country Basic Concepts of DemocracyWorth of the individual- each individual is a separate and distinct being, all make up one society Equality of all persons- equal opportunity for all, equality before the law; cannot hold back based on race, color, religion, or gender Majority rule or minority rights- majority must always be restrained by the minority rights; must always be willing to listen to objections, criticisms, and suggestions Necessity of compromise- the process of blending and adjusting competing views and interests, democracy outs the individual first, each individual is the equal of all other. Compromise is a process to achieve majority agreement Individual Freedom- democracy can thrive only in an atmosphere of individual freedom, does not complete freedom for the individual. Absolute freedom an only happen in anarchy, absence of government Thomas Hobbes-People must submit to being ruled by government, government needs to protect people from their selfishness and not do anything to hurt them, absolute monarchs are best leaderships but should be imited, state of nature regards how humans would act in their most basic state without any form of government, state of war states that people in state of nature are always at war with one another John Locke- believed in a limited government that does not have absolute authority, his social contract idea joins people in groups and aggress to make rules and conditions for memberships in their society, rejected “Divine Right to rule”, government to protect right to life, freedom, and property Jean Jacques Rousseau- everyone, regardless of sex, race, ethnicity, age have the same rights Baron de Montesquieu- separation of powers, divided powers of a government among 3 different branches to minimizes authority abuse Chapter 2 Magna Carta- The Great Charter, seeks protection against heavy-handed and arbitrary acts by the king.Trial by jury and due process of law- protection against the arbitrary taking life, liberty, or property, established the principle that the power of the monarchy was not absolute English Petition of right- limited the king’s power, demanded the king no longer imprison or otherwise punish any person but by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land, not impose martial law in time of peace. Protection against marshal law- absolute military control over all activities of a country, just supposed to maintain order in times of crisis.
Guarantee of trial by jury- a trial where the case is decided by the jury who conducts the proceeding and takes decision. Protection of private property- people can’t be prohibited from acquiring and holding valued items. Protection against quartering of troops- citizens can’t be forced to provide soldiers with housing and food.English bill of rights- prohibited a standing army in peacetime, except with the consent of parliament, and required that all parliamentary elections be free, right to fair trial, freedom from excessive bail and from cruel and unusual punishment. No standing army in peacetime- professional soldiers during times of peace.
Free elections- elections that let people determine the political makeup and future policy direction of their nation’s government. Right of petition- the freedom to contact government to fix problems or some form of injustice without fear of punishment. Parliamentary checks on power- let Parliament look at decisions made by monarch and decide if they’re acting within their power Articles of Confederation- 11/15/1997, established a “firm friendship” among the statesGovernmental structure- congress was sole body created, unicameral, made up of delegates, executive and judicial covered by congress, had a Presiding officer, not a president Powers of congress- make war and peace, receive ambassadors, make treaties, borrow money, set up a money system, establish post offices, build a navy, raise an army by asking the states for troops, fix uniform standards of weights and measures, and settle disputes among the states State obligations- provide the funds and troops requested by the congress, treat citizens of other states fairly and equally within their own, give full faith and credit to public acts, records, and judicial proceedings, surrender fugitives from one justice to another, submit their disputes to congress for settlement, allow open travel and trade between and among states, protecting life and propertyWeaknesses- did not have the power to tax, could raise money only by borrowing and asking states for funds, could not regulate trade between states, limited by the lack of a power to make the states obey the Articles or the laws it made Constitutional Convention- in Pennsylvania 7 delegates came to revise the articles Virginia plan- first attempt at new constitution, new government with 3 branches, bicameral, based upon state’s population, had house of reps and senate New jersey plan- unicameral, states equally represented, limit powers to tax and regulate trade between states, more than one “federal executive” Connecticut compromise- bicameral, smaller senate, house based on population, great compromise Ratifying the ConstitutionFederalists- favored ratification of the constitution, stressed weaknesses, showed there was a lack of a bill of rights Anti-federalists- opposed ratification, attacked all changes Bill of rights-first ten amendments, guarantees of freedom of belief and expression, and of fair and equal treatment before the law The Federalist- essays written by Alexander Hamilton, supporting the constitution Chapter 5 Political party- a group of persons who seek to control government through winning of elections and the holding of public office, link between the people and their government Major parties- republican (GOP)- typically white males, higher paid; and democratic, typically lower income, mixed religions nd races Liberals- gradual reform, distribute wealth evenly, protect personal freedom, self-government in personal matters, government should serve the disadvantaged, government intervention in economics, tolerate social diversityConservatives- reluctant to change, preserving status quo, traditional values, against abrupt change, self-government in economics, official standards in personal maters, less government intervention except in military and foreign, Historical basis- the nation started with two parties, federalists & anti-federalists, became a tradition, Rolls of Political Parties Select Candidates- main function of political parties Informing and activating supporters- inform the people, get them interested and involved in issues and try to make them think their way to give them an advantage Acting as a watchdog- criticizes the policies and behavior of party in power Party SystemsTwo party system- two major parties dominate political field, rooted in the history of the nation, always have had one Multiparty- several major and many lesser parties exist and compete seriously One party system- dictatorships, “no party” system, one political party allowed and is the ruling group The Electoral System- certain features of government, like single-member districts, are designed to favor two major parties Ideological Consensus- most Americans have a general agreement on fundamental matter, conditions that would spark several strong rival parties do not exist Chapter 7 Self-announcement- person wants to run for office just nominates themselves, or may have someone else make announcement for them Convention- party’s members meet in a local caucus to pick candidates for local offices and select delegates to represent them at the county convention Nomination- naming of those who will seek office General elections- regularly scheduled elections at which voters make the final selection of officeholders Types of Primaries Direct primary- intra-party election to pick the party’s candidate for eneral election Closed primary- party nominating election in which only declared party members can vote, mOn the job training or OJT is one method by which students is given a chance to apply the theories and computations that they have learned from the school. It also helps the students to acquire relevant knowledge and skills by per forming in actual work setting.
Colleges and universities require their students to undergo such training within a specific number of hours as part of the curriculum. For the students, an OJT or internship program provides opportunities to go through the actual methodologies of a specific job using the real tools, equipments and documents.In effect, the workplace becomes a development venue for a student trainee to learn more about his chosen field and practice what he has learn from academy. On the other hand, an effective OJT program also benefits the companies who accept trainees. First OJT or intern provides additional manpower for a lesser labor cost than a regular employee. Most of them are all eager to learn the ropes so chances are high that they will cooperate. Employers can use this internship strategy as a method in recruiting new Employees.
Since the trainer or the supervisor can follow the trainees’ progress, he can gauge based on performance, behavior and attitude if the trainee will make a good recruit after the completion of his internship. Accommodating on-the-job trainees can truly be beneficial not only to the trainees but also to the companies that provide opportunities for this type of learning. There is wisdom in the front lines.
Such training can be an investment that will be valuable to the company later on.This is also why trainees should take their internship seriously as it can become a powerful tool and possibly even a source of recommendation when they take that big lift from being students to career professionals. In totality OJT Program is one of the most important experience that the student need as part of the fulfillment of his/her studies. This experience helps student in preparation to the real or actual work and it will provide knowledge and lessons that is very helpful in their daily life. It also helps the students to acquire relevant knowledge and skills by performing in actual work setting.
Colleges and Universities require their students to undergo such training within a specific number of hours as part of the curriculum. It is one way of letting the student make fell the real world of work after graduating from an academe. In every beginning we are looking forward for new things and experience to happen.
What excites me the most is the fact that we are soon to reach the finish line. Graduation is near to happen but I have to focus more on my on the job training. November 21, 2012 when I started my On the Job Training at Social Security System located at Sta.Maria Bulacan.
A lot of things for me are new, the employee, the clients and even the office. With this, a lot of adjustments are needed for me to overcome. On my first day of training, the employees oriented us all the rules and regulations of the office and even everything about the company. I was assigned at different department. They assigned to answer phone calls and they also thought us how to deal with other people.
On the 21th day of December, we celebrated the Christmas Party of the office together with the clients.Through this we met all the clients and I applied my skills of communications that i have learned from my instructors and to the employee of standard. One thing also developed on myself is having a confident to face with other people. New experiences will surely help me in my chosen field. Upon completing mu number of hours needed for my OJT, I was really thankful. I had successfully finished the said activity.
I am glad that I’ve learned many things during my OJT. I learned to be an independent. I had experience so many kinds of works done in the office. I have understood so many things done in the government.It is not really easy to work with, especially when you are dealing with many people as well as different clients. I am very thankful to my entire trainee because they made me experience the real world of work and helped me to improve my skills and to succeed in the future workplace. I hope my OJT will become my first step in achieving my goals in life, to have a better career.
Brief History/Background of the company/ Company Profile Social Security System (SSS) is an agency which is created to establish a social security protection to workers in the private sector, wage earners as well as self-employed persons.It is implemented in accordance with the Republic Act 1161, better known as Social Security Act of 1954. It was former President Manuel A.
Roxas who first proposed a bill in Congress, seeking the establishment of a social security system for wage earners and low-salaried employees. This he said on January 26, 1948, during his State of the Nation Address. On July 7, 1948, after the death of Pres. Roxas, Pres. Elpidio Quirino created a Social Security Commission, his first official act as president. This commission drafted the Social Security Act that was submitted to Congress.
This draft was introduced by Rep.Floro Crisologo, SenatorsCipriano Primicias and Manuel Briones to the House and was enacted as Republic Act 1161, or the Social Security Act 1954. However, its implementation was delayed by objections made by business and labor groups.
It was only in 1957, that amendatory bills were presented in Congress creating the RA 1792, amending the original Social Security Act. On September 1, 1957, the Social Security Act of 1954 or the Social Security Law (SS Law) was finally implemented adopting the social insurance approach to social security, covering the employed segment of the labor force in the private sector.There are two programs being administered by SSS, namely: * The Social Security Program; and * The Employees’ Compensation (EC) Program, which started in 1975, providing double compensation to workers who had illness, death or accident during work-related activities. EC benefits are granted only to members with employers other than themselves. In 1980, some groups of self-employed persons were also required to contribute to the social security fund from which benefits are paid upon the occurrence of a contingency provided by law.In 1992, self-employed farmers and fisherfolks were also included in the program. In 1993, household helpers who earn at least P1,000 were included in the compulsary coverage of employees and in 1995, workers in the informal sector earning at least P1,000 a month, like the ambulant vendors and watch-your-car boys, were also covered by SSS.
On May 1, 1997, Pres. Fidel V. Ramos, signed RA 8282, Social Security Act of 1997, an act which furtherly strengthen the SSS.
This act provides better benefit packages, expansion of coverage, flexibility in investments, stiffer penalties for violators of the law, condonation of penalties of delinquent employers, and the establishment of a voluntary provident fund for members. In 1995, upon the enactment of Republic Act 7875 or the National Health Insurance Act of 1995, SSS, which used to administer Medicare program for hospitalization and other medical needs of private sector workers, transferred the administration to Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth) for an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development.Social Security CommissionOnly mark on that party’s ballot, may only vote in that party’s primary, 27 states; prevents one party from “raiding” the others primary and switching votes, helps voters stay true to party, and more thoughtful voters Open primary- any qualified voter may vote, must pick the ballot in which they want to vote, privately or publically depending on the state, 23 states; say closed compromises secrecy, an excludes independent voters Blanket primary- “wide open primary”, all voters have one ballot with every candidate on it, may vote however they want Virginia has an open primary with public declaration, must announce party ticket you wish to vote on Campaign funding and spending Buckley v. aleo- struck down several spending limits set by FEC act, held them to be contrary of freedom of expression, 1st amendment; limits those running for senate or house, how much of their own money they van put down, no person or group could spend more than $1,000 Bipartisan campaign reform act of 2002Regulates the financing of political campaigns, Citizen’s united ruling- argued that the 1st amendment prohibited the government from restricting independent political expenditures by corporations and unions, court upheld requirements for public discloser by sponsor of advertisements, did not involve the federal bam or direct contributions from corporations or unions to candidate campaigns which are still illegal for political parties FEC Act- regulate use of money in presidential and congressional campaigns Disclosure requirements- no one can make contribution in the name of someone else, no more than $100 in cash, none from a foreign source, must all be closely accounted for, must be dated, if more than $5,000 must be reported to FEC Limits on contributions- no persons can give more than $2,000 in a primary election or to any general campaign. Cannot give more than $5,000 in a year to a PAC or $25,000 to a national party committee, no more than $95,000 in an election cycle PAC contributions- political arms of special-interest groups- business, labor, cause, etc. , raise money and give to electors, no more than $5,00 to any one federal candidate in and election, or $10,000 per election cycle.
No overall limit of giving to a candidate, may also do up to $15,000 to a political party Public funding of presidential campaigns- preconvention campaigns, supported by private contributors; national conventions, major party receives grants to pay for it; presidential election campaigns, major party nominee qualifies for public subsidy to cover costs of general election Sources of funding- small contributors, $5 or $10; wealthy individuals, can afford heavy donations; candidates, incumbents or challengers; PACs; temporary organizations, formed for fundraising, etc. Chapter 8 Public opinion- the attitudes held by a significant number of people on matters of government and politics Political socialization-Family- learn immediately political values from parents and family School- salute flag, say Pledge every day, grow up learning about politics and form their own opinions Mass media- means of communication that reach large, widely dispersed audiences, newspapers, TVs, radio, Internet, magazines Peer groups- people a person normally associates with, share same opinions Opinion leaders- hold public offices, writers, broadcasters, etc; easily reach the public; churches, neighbors Public opinion polls- devices that attempt to collect info by asking people questions Straw votes- polls that sought to read the publics mind imply by asking the same question to a large amount of people, highly unreliable Exit polls- poll taken of voters directly after they have exited the polling station Political polls are used to gauge the public’s opinions on specific issues, candidate, or the general political mood The influence of the MediaTV- all-persuasive, one TV set in 98% of US homes, replaced newspapers, CBS, ABC, NBC all major political news Newspapers- since 1704, guarantee of freedom of press, cover stories in greater depth Radio- 1920s, FDR had fireside chats Magazines- Time, Newsweek, US news ; world report, Campaign Advertisement Glittering Generalities- invokes positive emotions Mud slinging- showing the negative aspects of your opposed Testimonials- candidate becoming more personable to people and sharing personal life Card stacking- manipulate audience perception of an issue by emphasizing one side and repressing another Bandwagon- following the majority of the populationPlain folks- the candidate tries to relate to everyday people Chapter 13/14 Constitutional Requirements Natural Born Citizen: born in America, except under “jus sanguinis” At least 35- JFK, youngest at 43 Lived in U. S. for at least 14 years, any 14 years in their life Salary/Benefits Now $400,000 salary, $50,000 expense allowance, white house, offices, staff, travel, air force one, camp David, insurance, etc. Terms 4-year term- Article 2.
Long enough to have gained experience, show abilities, and stable policies. No limit placed on number of terms until 1951 when FDR broke “two term tradition” 22nd amendment states that you can’t have more than 2 terms, or 10 years Responsibilities of the PresidentArticle 2- Can command forces, make treaties, approve or veto congress send or receive diplomatic reps, grant pardons or reprieves Ordinance power is the power to issue these orders comes from congress and constitution; not direct power, implied President names ambassadors, other diplomats, cabinet members and aides, heads of independent agencies. Federal judges, U. S. marshals, attorneys, officers in the armed forces Congress doesn’t have extensive war power President dominates military policy, almost without limit Delegate much of command to military subordinates Often have used the armed forces abroad without declaring war Haven’t declared war since WW2 Also sends troops to support other nations in battle War powers resolution: Within 48 hours, report to congress; must end in 60 days unless agreed longer by congress; congress can end at any time by passing concurrent resolution Not fully constitutional Formal Roles of the PresidentChief of State: ceremonial head of government, symbol of the people of the nation (England, queen) Chief Executive: broad in domestic and foreign affairs, most powerful Chief Administrator: director of the federal government Chief Diplomat: main architect of foreign policy, nation’s spokesperson to the rest of the world Commander in Chief: in charge of nation’s armed forces, direct ; immediate control Chief Legislator: main architect of public policies, sets congressional agenda, directs most major legislation Chief of Party: leader of the political party in office, much of power/influence depends on this role Chief Citizen: representative of the people.
Work for and represent public interest Informal Roles of the PresidentExecutive order- directive, rule, or regulation that has the effect of law Executive Agreement- A pact between president and head of a foreign state, or between their subordinates, do not require senate consent, Need no congressional action Executive privilege- the power claimed by the president cannot be legally forced to disclose their confidential communications with Military Powers War Powers Resolution- congress claimed power to restrict the use of American forces in combat in areas that war doesn’t exist Vice President Constitutional rights: preside over senate, help decide question of presidential disabilities Balance the ticket- choose a running mate who will strengthen his chance of being elected by appealing to people with the qualities he lacks Presidential Succession Presidential Succession: how presidential vacancy is filled. 25th amendment- presidential death or removal from office, VP takes over Presidential Succession Act of 1947- list of successorsPresidential Elections Runoff primary- if not one wins absolute majority, the two top vote getters in the first party primary face one another to become nominee Presidential primary- an election where party’s voters choose some or all of a state party organization’s delegates to their national convention and express their preferences with contenders Caucus- a group of like-minded people who meet up to select the candidates they will support in an upcoming election, open to all members of a party Electoral college- group that makes the formal selection of the nation’s president First states- Iowa and New Hampshire Checks of the Legislative Branch LegislativePresident has a considerable influence on actions of congress Regularly sends 3 major messages to Capitol Hill yearly; state of union message, budget message, and annual economic report Every bill will be presented to the president President can sign the bill making it law; veto it and return it to congress; allow bill to become law by not acting on it within 10 days; pocket veto can be used at end of congressional session President can’t veto only part of a bill, must veto all of it Line-item veto- urged that the president be given the power to cancel specific dollar amounts in spending bills enacted by congress Judicial President appoints all judges and officials Terms 3/5s compromise- slaves counted as 3/5 of a person in population, but also for taxing 25th amendment- if president writes he is unable, or VP and cabinet say he is unable.Pres can say no disability exists; vp/cabinet can challenge- congress then has 21 days to decide Absentee voting- voting for those who cannot make it the polling places on election ay; disabled, ill, away from home, armed forces Amnesty- effect of a blanket pardon offered to a group of law violators Australian ballot- printed at public expense, lists names of all candidates, only at polls, one per voter, marked in secret Autocracy- a single person holds unlimited political power Bicameral- two-house legislature Bipartisanship- two major parties find common ground and work together Bonding agent function- ensure the good performance of its candidates, tries o make sure that they are people who are qualified with good character Charter- a written grant of authority from the king Charter colonies- based on charters granted to the colonists themselves, governors selected by the white, make property owners Checks and balances- gives each branch its own field of governmental authority, not entirely separated or independent of each other, subject to a number of constitutional checks by other branches Coalition- temporary alliance of several groups who come together to form a working majority and so to control a governmentConcurrent powers- both the national and state governments can exercise Confederation- an alliance of independent states, only handles matters that member states assign to it Consensus- a general agreement among various groups on fundamental matters Delegates- representatives from the 13 colonies, have to power to raise military and naval forces, make war and peace with the Native Americans, regulate trade with them, tax, and collect custom duties Democracy- the responsibility for the exercise of powers rests with a majority of the people, supreme authority rests with the people Dictatorship- exercise of powers help by a single person or a small group, those who rule cannot be held responsible of the will of the people Division of powers- between the national government and assigns certain powers to the national government and certain to the state government Electoral politics- major parties generally dominate, TV lets candidates appeal directly to people on their own, must have appropriate “image” Electorate- people eligible to vote Exclusive powers- exercised by the national government alone, never by states Expressed powers- delegated to the national government, “enumerated powers”. Article 1, section 8.Powers to lay and collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, declare war, raise and maintain armed forces, etc. in the constitution Factions- conflicting groups Federal government- the powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments Federalism- a system of government in which a written constitution divides the powers of government on a territorial basis between a central, or national, government and several regional governments, usually called states or provinces.
Full faith and credit clause- most often comes to play in court matters, observed between the states, all documents (public acts, records, etc) are to be observed in other states.BUT not in criminal matters, or some divorces Governing- officeholders chosen on basis of the party Hard money- money raised and spent to elect a candidate Imperial presidency- president as emperor, taking actions without telling congress, maybe even secretively or deceiving Government- every state is organized politically, an institution through which society makes and enforces its public policies, the state exerts its will and works to accomplish its goals Implied powers- not directly in constitution, but reasonably suggested Inherent powers- belong to national government cause it’s the government of a sovereign state in the world, power to regulate immigration, deport undocumented immigrants, acquire territory, are implied by one or more of the expressed powers. Judicial review- power of courts to determine whether what the government does is in accord with what the constitution provides Limited government- no government is all-powerful, may only do things that the people have given it power to do, must also obey the law Mass media- communication, publications, radio, TV, Internet, etc to communicate and advertise, etc.Minor party- one of the many political parties without wide voter support Necessary and Proper Clause- congress has power to make all laws proper in a given situation, flexible Nonpartisan elections- candidates are not identified by party labels Oligarchy- the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite Pardon- legal forgiveness of a crime Parliamentary government- executive is the prime minister or the premier, and that official’s cabinet, all are members of parliament, remain in office as long as their policies and administration have the confidence of a majority in parliament Partisanship- strong support of a part and hat it stands for Plurality- largest number of votes cast for the officePolitics- the process by which a society decides how power and resources will be distributed within that society, enables a society to decide who will reap the benefits, and who will pay the costs of its public policies Popular Sovereignty- al political power resides in the people Population- has nothing directly to do with the existence of a state, can be very small or very large. The people may or may not be homogeneous.
President- a single, commanding head of the executive branch, Held by ONE person Privileges and Immunities Clause- no state can draw unreasonable distinctions between its own residents and those persons which happen to live in other states, must allow any citizen to use it’s courts, make contracts, buy, own, sell, etc. property, or marry Presidential government- the executive and legislative branches of the government are separate, independent of one another, and coequal.Proprietary colonies- people who the king gave a grant of land, governor was appointed by the proprietor Public agenda- societal problems that political leaders and citizens agree need government attention, determine large extent what public issues the people will think and talk about, media influences heavily by discussing what they believe to be important so people listen to those stories Public policies- all of those things a government decides to do; covers matters ranging from taxation, defense, education, crime, health car, transportation, environment, civil rights, working conditions, etc. Ratification- formal approval of constitution Reprieve- postponement of the execution of a sentence Representative government- serve the will of the people had also been developing in England for centuries Reserved powers- powers that the constitution foes not grant to the national government and does not deny to the states Royal charters- subject to direct control of the crown, the king names a governor, a council serves as the advisory body to governor Separation of powers- basic powers are distributed among 3 distinct, independent branches of government Soft money- funds given to a party organizationSplit-ticket voting- voting for different candidates of different parties for different offices at the same election Supremacy Clause- constitution stands above all other forms of law in the United States, joins the national and states into a single federal government Territory- must have known and recognized boundaries Treaty- formal agreement between 2 or more sovereign states Unconstitutional- declare illegal, null and void, of no force and effect- a governmental action found to violate a provision in the constitution Unicameral- one house legislature Unitary government- centralized government, creates local units of government for its own convenience