One theory that is present with my personal case is Linen’s three steps. He claimed that in order to be successful, the change process needed to follow this three-step procedure: (1) unfreezing, (2) moving and (3) freezing at a new level (or refreezing). Step (1) Unfreezing occurred when presented data to the operations group which highlighted the substandard fill rate for the exported windshield commodity. Demonstrating a need for the change and sharing details about the external environment which jeopardized the organizations success.
Step (2) Moving is to move toward the new, or desired behavior. The associates must see the leaders point of view. This is typically what I refer to as gaining buy-in from the associates to support the change. Leaders that maintain two way communication with the followers are more likely to gain support for the change. Addressing the anxieties of how the change may or may not impact them personally is always a great concern. Therefore prompt and thorough explanations are key to the potential success of the change.
One method for determining the associates’ perception of management as well as other attributes within the organization is the use of revere feedback. Survey feedback, a systematic way of understanding an organization from the standpoint of employee perceptions and processing this understanding back into the organization so that change can occur, is a primary method of leveraging organization change. (Burke, 2013). Once the survey feedback results are finalized then small groups of associates representing each of the production areas meet to discuss their concerns, aka sensitivity training.
These meetings are referred to as Circle meetings. Literally the associates form a circle and take turns providing one another tit feedback as to how they are performing, an evaluation of their individual behavior and how it relates to their goals. Typically the goal is to increase associate awareness of how others perceive them and to realize how their behavior impacts others. Step (3) Refreezing establishes ways to make the new level of behavior “relatively secure against change “(Lenin, 1947).
Examples include establishing key performance indicator(s) or creating a recognition program for meeting / exceeding targets. As with my personal case performance standards were created for monitoring the fill rate for export shipments. The management staff continues to promote Skinners philosophy of “positive reinforcement’ by issuing Barges (Business Revolution – Going the Extra Mile). This program highlights those activities that have a significant impact to the overall performance of Toyota and relate directly to annual plan items. Associates are awarded Visa gift cards valued between $25 -$1 ,OHO.
So as the team achieves a milestone then someone is nominated for their role. It is very important to understand the various effects of organizational change across the primary levels of any organization. These primary levels re the individual, the group or work unit, and the total system (Burke, 2013). Changes at the individual level are geared towards kamikaze or continuous improvement and designed to help an organization move in a new direction. Organizations use recruitment, selection, training and development along with coaching and counseling to implement the change.
They are concerned with selecting and keeping the right people in the right roles and responsibilities to facilitate the larger change efforts. Most likely as with any change there will be resistance. The different types of resistance are blind, lattice or ideological that the leader may encounter. I think its important to identify the type of resistance and utilize coaching and counseling to help the associates cope with the change. Therefore communication is critical to the success of the change. In the early stages of my personal case I selected associates from each department within the facility to be the project champions.
These associates were designated as project team leads, gathering information from their departments and providing an insight of any associate concerns with the upcoming change. Having representatives in each area allowed the team to identify any resistance to the change early on. The work group is the most important subsystem in any organization. The degree of how team members work with each other as well as the entire group within the organization will partially determine the overall success of the organization.
Conducting team building activities which supports the change sets goals, determines how the work is to be performed by the team members, and examines group processes and interpersonal relationships among the members. Soon after I introduced the potential change to the hipping methods for the export glass, scheduled on onsite meeting at Engineered Packaging Services, the third party packaging company which included the project champions from each department. My goal was to establish a working relationship with representatives from both facilities.
Have each Of them gain a better understanding of the task Of bulk packing windshields, managing the logistics and have them assume ownership of the change. During the visit I also established team members’ roles and responsibilities and evaluated the interactions of the team members determining if I needed to make any adjustments to the team. Within my organization the spirit of freedom “say what you think” has certainly enhanced connectivity. All associate forum allows every individual within my organization to participate, voicing concerns and or opinions.
This activity could possibly result with associates connecting with someone who shares a similar opinion. A sense of freedom enables associates to engage with one another potentially developing trustworthiness. Also during these meetings encouraged associates to have open dialogue, ask questions (spirit of inquiry) which helps to clarify issues and validate understanding of processes thus enhancing capacity. Including everyone (spirit of inclusion) provides different perspectives to a situation that might not otherwise have been provoked.
The spirit of inclusion supports connectivity which is critical for building on the Toyota Way, respect for people while promoting teamwork. The change processes at the larger system level are orders of change, phases of large system change and the change focus. Organizations are dynamic systems, evolving and changing in response to feedback. The open Systems theory is useful for organizations because it provides a framework for thinking about recesses such as change which is a regular part of managing an organization.
When considering organizational change, it is important to take a total system perspective. Although one rarely tackles the entire system at once, one works diligently to keep the total in mind as one goes about changing parts, because the change of one part will affect other parts, perhaps all parts eventually. (Burke, 2013). Therefore I think it is critical to engage all key stakeholders when developing the action plan for total system change. Communicate frequently how the change is progressing, identify the milestones that have been achieved.
Von Bertelsmann (1 950), Katz and Kahn (1978) define 10 characteristics that distinguish open systems. Several of the characteristics that are present within my personal case are importation of energy, throughput, output and information input, negative feedback and the coding process. The energy that Toyota pulls from the environment is the purchasing of the raw materials to build the corrugate bulk packs. The throughput is considered when the associates build the packs and solicit feedback from the customers by attaching feedback forms on every bulk pack shipped.
The output occurs when collect and analyze the ATA and submit a response directly to the customer addressing their concerns. The information input, negative feedback and coding process is extremely important with my personal case based on the number of facilities and/or countries that are involved with the change. Obtaining feedback and identifying not only what works well but also what challenges are present will enhance communication with the stakeholders. When the feedback is not so favorable then countermeasures can be planned and executed.
To consider organization change, it is important to take a total system perspective. Although one rarely tackles the entire system at once, one works diligently to keep the total in mind as one goes about changing parts, because the change of one part will affect other parts, perhaps all parts eventually(Burke, 2013). As Burke stated during his interview when planning organization change, the process is usually linear, that is, Step 1 or Phase 1, then Step 2, 3, and so on. And although an attempt is made in the implementation of change to follow these steps or phases, what actually occurs is anything but linear.
The implementation process is messy: Things don’t proceed exactly as planned; people do things their own way, not always according to the plan; some people resist or even sabotage the process; and some people who would be predicted to support or resist the plan actually behave in just the opposite way. In short, unanticipated consequences occur. Think the most important thing I have learned in regards to managing organizational change is to be prepared for when the project goes off course.
Act quickly to resolve the issues as they occur and continue to provide updates to all of the stakeholders as to what countermeasures have been identified and when will hey be implemented. With my personal case I carefully planned and launched a trial pack for the windshield commodity as I have done with numerous other packaging changes. Understanding that if the next customer encountered any problems with the changes I could simply adjust the packaging spec or stop the trial if necessary. However with the shipping parts overseas that is not the case.
It’s approximately a 30 day lead time from dock to dock per shipment. So according to my original plan it would take two to three months to gain consensus from the facilities impacted. Meanwhile customer demand had spiked to a degree of critical urgency therefore I had to modify the original plan and respond quickly to customers waiting on these parts. My only other option to satisfy the customer demand immediately was to consider air shipments. Therefore I re-designed the bulk pack to whereas it would still meet density needs and protect the windshields from breaking when shipped via air.
This changed required collaboration with yet another packaging provider as well as another freight forwarding company. Within seven days had air shipped two trial bulk packs to Japan and Europe, gained nonsense from both facilities to move forward with implementation, established a new vendor as a back-up freight forwarder for Toyota and coordinated the logistics to complete shipments of 1 300 pieces in back order status. Another important aspect of any change initiative is making sure the implementation meets the established objectives.
Routine monitoring of the performance of the change ensuring that it remains on track and complies with the set goals. Standard operating procedures were developed for bulk packaging windshields designated for overseas shipments and for recessing critical orders with Vehicle Off Road Status. Immediately following the implementation of the new shipping method three, six, nine and twelve month reviews were scheduled to evaluate the performance of the change and determine if any adjustments need to be made.
At each interval of monitoring for compliance, feedback is provided regarding the results of the change not only to the stakeholders but to the entire Toyota network including management associates. The project champions from each area assume responsibility to communicate results with their departments during he staff meetings. The main purpose of the feedback is to provide details as to the success or failure of the plan.
The evaluation process provides an opportunity to benchmark business results and compare them with the goals, as well as to find out what is and is not working. The last step of Cotter’s 8 Step model highlights the importance of anchoring the change in corporate culture. I have collaborated with members of the management staff to gain continued support with ensuring the change sets. In addition I have written standard operating procedures documenting the change and establishing argues for safe handling and performance which will be reviewed with associates quarterly.