In this assignment will cover three subjects: Organizational Culture, Motivation and Group and Team working. Each subject will depict one key theory and application of this rule in some item and cover other theory briefly. Discourse a specific organisational illustration and place unfavorable judgments of the theory in each portion. Human behavior in organisations is a symbol of civilisation, between the modern civilisation and ancient civilisation, the human organisational behavior is one of the most important passages.
The organisational behavior defines how persons work in groups and the construction of groups in the organisations. With the measure of human attack, increasing cognition slopes one to foster survey and the work signifier or manner does non suitable for single bit by bit, working into organisation is inevitable tendency in the presents and hereafter. Organizational Culture as a one of most of import facets in the company is working for upgrade the character of company.
Molander & A ; Winterton ( 1994, p.3 ) states that “ Anyone who has spent clip in a figure of work organisations will hold noticed how the ‘climate ‘ differs, the different ways in which things are done, differing degrees of energy and single freedom, and of class, different sorts of people ” . And “ The complex mixture of premises, behaviours, narratives, myths, metaphors ( symbols ) and other thoughts that fit together to specify what it means to be a member of a peculiar society ” , this position has been supported in the work of Stoner and Freeman ( 1999, p.181. ) . Culture is derived from fanciful context, clearly linked to scheme and find how scheme can be implemented. In successful organisation, there is a ‘strong ‘ civilization.
In 2006, Haier is the universe ‘s 4th largest tulipwoods maker and one of China top 100 IT company. In add-on, Haier subdivisions in engineering research, industry industry, trading and fiscal services with 240 subordinate companies and 30 design centres, workss and trade companies and more than 50,000 employees around the universe.
The planetary gross was about 10,000 million lbs. However 20 old ages ago, Haier was a little province owned company in Qingdao, China and it was losing $ 178,000 on one-year grosss of $ 421,000. ( Haier, 2010 ) During that period, it had built up its ain gross revenues web about universe, export more than 160 states. Meanwhile, Haier merely merchandise iceboxs originally, now its merchandise scope screen tonss of classs in the domestic electrical contraption market with 1000s of single merchandises.
What makes Haier from a little unsuccessful company, which is about shut down to an international large-scale endeavor? It is the “ Zhang ‘s cock ” . Zhang Ruimin the CEO of Haier Corporation, he drives and transforms Haier to a planetary participant. Haier ‘s civilization, manner and operational attack reflect its Chinese traditions and its successes are identified with its cardinal leaders. Haier president Yang Mianmian states her scheme of ‘one low ( monetary value ) , three high ( value, growing and quality ) ‘ it is besides cited as a key for Haier ‘s go oning success. A narrative of Zhang Ruimin that took in a twenty-four hours in 1985, Zhang took a maul to a row of 76 faulty Haier fridges to the whole work force who were lined up to watch ( a electric refrigerator cost about two old ages rewards in that twelvemonth ) . Zhang said:
“ If we do non destruct these iceboxs, what is be shattered by the market in the hereafter will be this endeavor. ”
This cock is a symbol of Zhang ‘s complete rejection of the old company attitude that faulty merchandises could be tolerated and knocked out at a price reduction. This narrative signifies that Haier Corporation is with a strong and typical civilization.
The international scheme of Haier seeks to offer a fast bringing and good service to local market and clients by make maximal usage of local labour resources and capital. It is ever altering merchandises for the local penchants and wonts ( as with the vino electric refrigerator ) , a pattern that could go dearly-won in footings of complexness and logistics.
Haier ‘s planetary stigmatization scheme aims at standing as a local trade name in different market. With the strong Haier civilization, Zhang has decided to travel for the hard markets foremost on the footing that success in these markets would necessitate the company to better faster than seeking to rule less ferociously contested markets. Haier has dominated the Chinese market, though Zhang has sought to spread out the web through confederations, such as the 2002 understanding with Sanyo, this understanding helps Haier force into Japan market.
Haier ‘s strong civilization can be seen most clearly in its internal relationships even exporting to other state. Haier built and opened a mill in South Carolina to function the American market. At first, its methods were unusual to the new employees from local labor market. However, harmonizing to a study in the Chinese People ‘s Daily:
aˆ¦both sides have harmonious exchanges, the difference of cultural background, alternatively of doing alienation between the Chinese and American workers in their work, has increased their involvement in common apprehension.
Initially, the American workers were against to volunteer for overtime to finish the twenty-four hours ‘s mark work, but the Haier civilization motivated them accept the ‘strange ‘ work system from China and even fix for the following twenty-four hours ‘s work at Independent Day. Haier seems spread its civilization to America.
Presents, Haier represent as a ace trade name from China manage to set up and consolidate its place as planetary trade name. As CEO Zhang said:
Another challenge unique to China is we have started our trade name development tardily. So we have to catch up in a really short period of clip. I will give you an analogy: It ‘s like building a 10 narrative edifice. Our foreign rivals have already finished all the manner up to the 9th floor. The Chinese market is their 10th floor. Once they have moved successfully into the China market, they will be finished with edifice this tower block. But in China, we have merely built the first floor. There are still nine floors to travel.
The narrative late carried out in the Necessities of organisational behaviour by Mullins ( 2008 cited in Lecture note University of Birmingham Organizational behaviour class, 2009 ) . Haier makes civilization as a tool of upgrade and powerful company. The facets of civilization can be national, organisational, or involvement group, comparatively digesting values, beliefs, imposts, traditions, and patterns normally shared by a distinct group-defines boundaries between organisations. It besides can be transmitted from one coevals to the next-conveys a sense of stableness and individuality.
Culture is something larger than single self-interest, provides criterions and control mechanisms. Invention and hazard, attending to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation and stableness perceived as organisation civilization separate the high strength employee and low strength employee. The state ‘s origin consequence appears on most planetary companies that rooted in national concern system of their place state.
Hofstede ‘s analysis has brought up cultural differences in such countries as power distance and uncertainness turning away, such nationalities as American, British, German/European and Nipponese accent different attacks to concern. Cultures interact with such elements as national concern systems, corporate control, direction development and human resources direction such as COKE, TOYOTA, and UBS.
The Business administration and direction talk given by Dr Peter Foss in November 2009 has shown the definition of motive is “ The willingness to exercise high degrees of attempt toward organizational ends, conditioned by the attempt ‘s ability to fulfill some single demand ” . Many factors can act upon motive for illustration, needs or outlooks, behavior or action, desired end, defeat or fulfillment and feedback.
These make a rhythm system, the demand or outlooks leads to behaviour or action so a coveted end will be set, during the procedure the obstruction will ensue in defeat, on the contrary get through the obstruction will lend to fulfilment, eventually some feedback to demands or outlook. Two differing positions are the content theories and procedure theories. The content theories emphasis “ what ” and process theories accentuate “ how ” .
The content theories place our demands and strengths ; supply the elements of motive ( Spicer, 2010 ) . The Maslow Hierarchy of demands concept by 5 phases, from lowest to highest each phase has its ain outlook after range it, so will travel to the following phase. We satisfy demands in the order given: physiological, safety, societal, esteem and self-actualisation. After bend to following unsated demand, the satisfied demand will non be a incentive any more. Meanwhile, deficiencies of satisfaction will effects physical and mental wellness. The innate desire to scale hierarchy and self-actualisation stimulates the desire for more. The Hongwu Emperor is one illustration to construe this theory.
Hongwu Emperor named Zhu Yuanzhang found Ming Dynasty in China, who is an outstanding military scientist and politician. He was born in Pei County in 1328 and he was the youngest of four brothers. His household was hard to provide basic demands for them and in 1344, the broken dike of Huang River destroyed this hapless household, merely Zhu Yuanzhang survived. In order to distribute the awful life status, Zhu Yuanzhang joined a local Rebel group to contend Mongol ground forces. With a strong survivable desire, physical endowment and natural leading ability, Zhu Yuanzhang became a leader in one subdivision of Red Turban.
The Red Turban was assorted brief by Buddhism and Zoroastrianism, the major force against Yuan Dynasty. In the 1356 Zhu Yuanzhang took control of a major metropolis of China, Yingtian ( now called Nanjing ) , he started run his ain policy and built his power prepared for separate from Red Turban in the hereafter. Benefited by Zhu Yuanzhang ‘s glorious endowment, he won the largest naval conflict, after won and from now on, Zhu Yuanzhang started roll uping hoarded wealth and jewelry from the people under his regulation and construct his ain castle in Yingtian.
He took the remainder of China and destroyed Yuan Dynasty in 1366. In the twelvemonth 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang proclaimed himself Hongwu Emperor. ( Buzzle, 2010 ) From this narrative, Zhu Yuanzhang followed Maslow Hierarchy of Needs, transportation from physiological to safety when he joined the Rebel group, after took control of Yingtian, and he sought for association. When Zhu Yuanzhang proclaimed himself Hongwu Emperor the phase from esteem to self-actualisation.
However, the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs theory limited by unrecorded status and degree of cognition. Harmonizing to the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Pyramid, the Physiological is the most common demand and Self-actualiation is the smallest. It is non suited for the modern universe any more, with the upgrade degree of human civilisation. Self-actualization can non remain at the top of Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Pyramid any more, physiological does non the basic demand for most people.
Theory X Type
Theory Y Type
Peoples dislike work and want to
Work is interesting, need it for growing
Force is needed to acquire the right
Peoples will direct themselves to end
Peoples are largely motivated by
Desire to carry through one ‘s possible is actuating
Most people have small creativeness
Creativity is available, but widely under used
Beginning: Foss, 2009
The McGregor ‘s Theory X and Theory Y show two opposite positions of single. Managers would more support Theory Y, the mental incentives are more effectual than substance incentives. The employee with Theory Y largely will be the top of their ain district, but Theory X can non. David McClelland learned that employee motivated by the six basic human demands: accomplishment, power, association, independency, self-esteem and security. ( Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010 )
The Process theories of motive focal point on the pick of incentive that consequence in the period of work. How much attempt the worker paid in the specific work depends on the incentive. The three procedure theories of motive are equity theory, anticipation theory and goal-setting theory. ( Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010 )
Self: Outcomes ( 100 )
Inputs ( 100 )
Other: Results ( 100 )
Inputs ( 100 )
( under-rewarded )
Outcomes ( 100 )
Inputs ( 100 )
Outcomes ( 150 )
Inputs ( 100 )
( over-rewarded )
Outcomes ( 150 )
Inputs ( 100 )
Outcomes ( 100 )
Input ( 100 )
The Equity Theory is defined by ratio of an person ‘s inputs and results to explicate how people utilize the resources and energy to administer equity. The balance or instability direct influence the satisfaction and motive of employees. Inequitable wages leads to dissatisfaction, lower end product and going. Equitable wages contributes to go on same degree of end product. More than Equitable Reward conduces to harder work, discounted wages, higher motive. Conspicuously, the best manner to pull off the motive of employees is a positive wages system. ( Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010 )
Expectancy theory based on the outlook for the end product of employees. Furthermore, satisfy the equation: Force of motive ( F ) = V ( way ) A- I ( chance ) A- E ( outlook ) , motive is the merchandise of way, chance and outlook. The attempt affect the public presentation, public presentation influence wages, eventually the wages make up one’s mind how much end product and outlook. The satisfactions of personal end attack contribute to a higher passion of employee to the work or research. ( Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010 )
Goal-Setting theory is the procedure of motivate employees utilizing end puting method. A ambitious ends lead to higher degree of public presentation, but this flexible joint on the worker ‘s ability, otherwise, will damage the motive and assurance if the ends can non be reached. Specific ends conduce to higher value of work than oversimplified ends. An energetic employee in end scene can better public presentation by increasing committedness. Individual ‘s belief of being capable of executing a undertaking assisted by puting ends increases public presentation. ( Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010 )
The following subject I chose is Group and Team Working. Group and squad are two different constructs. The Group is two or more people work together, face to confront communicating and have a common mark. However, the Team is a group of two or more people who influence and care each other, are moving as one “ people ” for common aims and perceive themselves as a responsible entity with an administration. ( Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010 ) Developing from Groups into Teams is one of the directors of organisation need to believe over.
The Team had ever better than the Group that is why a group of the universe best football participants can non 100 % defeats a professional squad with unknown participants. The undertaking and procedure attack of transportation group into squad have a great trade of facets: different civilization if the members of the group have different nationality or civilization background, take a leader from the group, environment, motive, resources and power or ability. There may besides hold plentifulness of unsure and complex troubles. Affiliation and accomplishment of single demands of group members, the communicate channels, openness to each other and determination devising are foundations of a squad.
Presents, squad working is competitiveness, with a high competitory market race, organisation required to upgrade its efficiency of work and stress the importance of the spirit of squad working. Particularly when face a large-scale undertaking, the person can non complete it by itself, at this point, the age of individuality was terminal, an outstanding squad seems be the chief watercourse of universe development. The public presentation of a squad depends on the categorization of work squad, lower-level squads merely make things like self-managed work squad similar with a individual group, middle-level squads monitor thing like undertaking squad but non perfect, the senior-level squads programs and runs things, they drive the undertaking to be existent by their stairss. ( Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010 )
To be a high acting squad required a common intent, clear defined ends, psychological, function lucidity, mature communicating, productive struggle declaration and accountable mutuality. Establish sense of urgency, choice members for accomplishment and skill possible, pay attending to first meetings and actions, set clear regulations for each member, challenge group often, set and prehend on a few speedy public presentation oriented undertakings, spend tonss of clip together and utilize positive feedback. The other of import regulation is insure psychological safety: equal voice, part ; everyone participates ; onslaught issues non people ; privateness in squad treatment. ( Foss, 2009 )
The leader is the nucleus of a squad who manage the way of squad attack with an overall consideration. The leader should familiar with the ability and virtuousness of each member and makes them move best in the suited place, stimulates the potency of them, strengthens the communicating between the squad and makes the members feel their importance in the squad. The members of squad are indispensible for the squad, should hold the consciousness of squad working. Completing the occupation of themselves is the duty in a squad, in extra, the members of squad should swear each other.
The barriers to team effectivity like societal idleness, hazardous displacement, decision-making, groupthink and common cognition. A baneful struggle in the squad, particularly between the leader and co-leader, this will disassociate the squad. In the squad, the 1+1 likely non larger than 2. In the 2004 NBA concluding, the Laker has Shaquille O’Neal, Kobe Bryant, Karl Malone, Gary Payton and the manager Phil Jackson versus the Pistons.
Everyone believed the NBA most powerful squad in the last 20 old ages would get the better of the squad without one ace easy. However, the consequence was the Pistons defeat the Lakers with mark 4 to 1. Actually, Shaquille, Kobe, Karl and Gary they are great hoops participants no affair in the conference or history, but they are non a squad, merely a celebrated group. Kobe and Shaquille non acquire along good for the squad leader, Karl and Gary desire for a title-holder ring, a squad with domestic problem and foreign invasion can non name a “ squad ” .
The three subjects are from the faculty organisational behavior and sociology of work. An abundant cognition of organisational behavior helps manage the relationship between employees and directors in the organisation and have the positive map to the company development. The first subject is organisational civilization, and the first portion is the definition about organisational civilization. Following utilizing the Haier cooperation as the application organisational illustration, during the application portion connects with the theory of organisational civilization. The concluding portion is described the cardinal theory and rules, in add-on, the unfavorable judgments of the theory and rules in this portion either. The 2nd subject is motive.
The first portion is explicate what motive is and provides The Maslow Hierarchy of demands theory as the chief theory. Using the Hongwu Emperor as the illustration to explicate the maslow hierarchy of demands theory. The followers is the unfavorable judgment and personal sentiment against the maslow hierarchy of demands theory. Finally portion is the other cardinal rules and theory. The last subject is group and squad working. The first portion is same with the other two parts explain the definition of group and squad working.
Following depict the differences between group and squad. The Laker from NBA is the organisation to demo how to pull off a squad and the barriers to team effectivity. The Organizational civilization, Motivation and Group and squad working are of import facets to an organisation. The cognition of organisational behavior is art of human relationship in the organisation, it is the mental spirit of an organisation. A successful direction of organisational behavior non merely construct a accordant relationship during the employees and directors but besides clear the barriers to organisation ascent and public presentation.