Osteoporosis soon after attainment of peak BMD

is a significant health burden compromising the strength of bone which causes
more than 8.9 million fractures annually (Szulc and Bouxsein, 2011).
The estimated lifetime risk for a wrist, hip or vertebral fracture is about 30
to 40% in developed countries and there are consistent reports of hip fracture with
urbanization throughout Asia (Mithal, Dhingra and Lau, 2009).
The risk of getting fractures increases exponentially with age due to decrease
in bone mineral density (BMD).Osteoporosis is a major socioeconomic burden
because of the associated morbidity, mortality and cost. Age-related bone loss is
greater in women than in men. There is a significant bone loss during the first
years after the menopause and largely in the trabecular region, that leads to
its perforation resulting in loss of entire trabeculae (Szulc and Bouxsein, 2011).In
men, slow bone loss starts soon after attainment of peak BMD then increases
after the age of 70 (Szulc and Delmas, 2007).In
men, trabecular bone loss consists mainly of trabecular thinning which
compromises bone strength less than the loss of entire trabeculae (Szulc and Delmas, 2007).
The mechanism of cortical bone loss is similar in both sexes but of smaller
magnitude in men. The hormonal changes occurring at menopause are a major
factor leading to osteoporosis in women. Reduction in ovarian function results
in a rapid decrease in 17?-estradiol secretion which leads to an increased
secretion of cytokines that activate osteoclasts (responsible for bone
resorption), RANKL, interleukin-1?, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor ?.
In men, gonadal function decreases slowly. Even in older men, the average
concentration of total testosterone is only 20 % lower than in young men and,
in many elderly men, the total testosterone level remains in the normal range (Bousson et al.,
South Asian population is rapidly increasing and ageing which is indicating the
rate of fracture will be higher in coming years. Treatment of fractures
involves considerable cost to the state and the affected individual and it will
be impossible even for the developed economies to sustain these cost in the
coming years, therefore search for cost effective prevention strategies is an
important research endeavor (Mithal, Dhingra and Lau, 2009).
Nature has provided many sources of traditional remedies that have been used
for many years for various ailments. Within the wide range of living organisms
available on earth including higher plants, animals, fungi and marine
organisms, the databases of natural products have recorded more than 200.000
compounds from almost all part of the world (F├╝llbeck et al.,
Dias and co-workers (2012)
infer that one of the ancient scripts from Egypt (2600 BC) mentioned the uses
of plants as the major constituents of traditional drugs (pills, infusions and
ointments). Moreover, ancient Chinese scientists (100 BC) and Greek physicians
(100 AD) documented several manuscripts regarding the prescription of numerous
herbal medicines. Later, a famous Persian scientist (8th century),
Avicenna, developed and introduced the basis of modern day pharmacy and medicine
science for the first time, with the emphasis being on the application of
plant-derived medicine.