Our The research would be also included one

Our research paper aims at investigates the effectiveness of persuasion heuristics on different gender. We would mainly focus on the gender effects of emotional and rational appeal on advertisements. As we want to know whether men and women differ in processing and being persuaded when receive same kinds of advertisement but in different manner. 1.2 Objectives of the StudyThis research aims at investigating the effectiveness of persuasion heuristics toward advertisement. The chosen appeals for this study are emotional and rational appeal. At the same time, in the process when the two appeals are influencing consumer purchase intention, gender is speculated to play a role as moderator. The comparison of rational and emotional appeals would be conducted with gender effect.  The research would be also included one model but in a two-study based to expose whether avoidance and approach products are associated with the above mentioned appeals and gender effect.  To be more specific, this study tries to: Analyze how do both male and female react to the advertisements with rational and emotional appeals. Explore whether the effect of rational and emotional appeals causes differences on the effectiveness of advertisement. Explore an ideal use of rational and emotional appeals on advertisement to optimize the desired outcome (considering the effect of gender and the two-study base product types). Investigate whether the effect of rational and emotional appeals would be different when applying to avoidance and approach products. Investigate which appeal is more effective for an advertisement when targeting different genders. Investigate which appeal is more effective for an advertisement when applying avoidance and approach products. 2. Literature Review2.1 Persuasion HeuristicsPersuasion heuristics, such as rational and emotional appeals, are used to enhance the effectiveness of advertisements, sales, and appeals to pro-environmental behavior engagement (Cody & Seiter, 2001). People considering marketing, advertising or psychological persuasion take advantage of those tactics to guide receivers’ attitudes and behaviors since they seldom process each information detailly, but often depend on quick psychological shortcuts (Cialdini, 2001).  As a result, marketers began to infuse persuasive appeals into advertisements instead of using lengthy logical arguments, so that the effect of an advertisement will be more effective when receivers will not deeply think about a message (Petty & Wegener, 1998).2.1.1 Emotional AppealEmotional appeal is a form of advertisement communication that use emotional persuasion, such as pride and empathy, to convince receiver and guide their attitudes and behaviors through pictures, voices, stories, smells, etc. (Lau-Gesk & Meyers-Levy, 2009; Cialdini, 2001).   During purchasing a product or service, consumer behaviors tend to be motivated by their own feelings toward a product rather than their understanding of the product features or attributes (Shukor, Sulaiman, Chin & Zakuan, 2016). It has a significant influence in term of marketing aspect on consumer attitude and purchase intentions, and will fulfill their psychological status (Brown & Stayman, 1992; Belch & Belch, 2012). The examples of perceived emotion from an ad could be: fear, romantic, excited, safe, comfort, secure, etc.2.1.2 Rational AppealRational appeal in advertising focuses on practical, functional or utilitarian features of a product or service. The message from a rational advertisement emphasizes on logical arguments or informative facts to persuade consumer. Marketers use rational ads to highlight the benefits of the product or service. The examples of rational information cues from an ad could be: efficiency, price, quality, function, material, health, purchasing time and place, research data, packaging, etc. (Grigaliunaite & Pileliene, 2016; Belch & Belch, 2012)2.2 Advertising EffectivenessAdvertising effectiveness can be defined as the extent to which it can generate expected effects to target audiences in order to achieve company’s goals (Crang, 2012). There are several metrics to measure the advertising effectiveness, including the tracking of sales figures, brand favorability, customer engagement and brand resonance. These measurement can be apply in all type of advertising such as printed advertising, outdoor advertising, television, direct mail and online advertising (Julia, 2016). The advertising effectiveness generally increases over time as when the exposure increases. Hence, appropriate use of advertisements aid to improve company’s performance by profits maximization.2.2.1 Customer attitudeCustomer attitude is defined as a overall evaluation of a products or service over time, which can satisfy individual motives as well as influencing the shopping habits of customers (Allport, 1935). It consists of three components which are customer’s beliefs, feelings and behavioural intentions towards some objects in the marketing context. (Gaspareniene, Remeikiene & Navickas, 2016). These components are highly interdependent as it can affect how customers react positively or negatively towards a products or a brand.2.2.2 Purchase Intention (PI)Purchase Intention (PI) refers to the willingness of a consumer to buy a particular products or services (Shah et al., 2012). It is a kind of decision-making that study the reasons to buy a specific brand by consumers. Also, it is a dependent variable determined by some of independent variables that triggers buyers’ purchasing considerations. Gogoi (2013) stated that purchase intention is usually related to the perceptions, attitudes and behavior of consumers which is an effective tool to predict buying process. Moreover, it may change under the fluctuation of price or perceived quality.2.2.3 Likeability According to Cialdini’s theory, likeability is one of principles to raise psychological triggers and influence customers’ perceptions. The liking principle defined that people are easily persuaded by other people they like. There are three important factors that contribute to likeability. Firstly, the physical attractiveness as we like people who like us. Secondly, the similarity as we like people who share similar characteristics with us. Thirdly, the compliments as people liked to be praised (Cialdini, 2015). These elements make the message we delivered more persuasive and likeable. Hence, it is an effective tool in evaluating the effectiveness of advertisements.2.3 Gender DifferenceWith the rising attention from society, gender difference has been studied in various disciplines, such as psychology, marketing, biology and management. There are different interpretation of gender difference. (Bakan 1966; Bem 1981; Kalleberg & Leicht 1991; Meyers-Levy 1988; Ohlott, Ruderman, & McCauley 1994; Putrevu 2001; Spence & Helmreich 1978; Stevens 1905). In psychological aspect, due to the different rate of biological development and the disparity in chemical and hormonal balance between males and females. Psychologists believed that individual differences in physical and mental traits and abilities were biologically determined (Fausto-Sterling 1985; Feingold 1992).In marketing aspect, contemporary research on gender differences has focused on cognitive abilities, social behavior and mate selection preferences (Buss 1995; Feingold 1992). Therefore, gender difference have been regard as one of the critical variable in affecting consumer attitudes and purchase intention in advertisement.The relationship of gender difference towards persuasion heuristics on advertisement can be best explained by cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST). CEST defined that people process informations by two parallel but interactive systems: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential system. The analytical-rational system is intentional, logical and analytic while the intuitive-experiential system is fast, preconscious, automatic, and emotionally driven. The psychologists Seymour Epstein further indicated that men often use rational and logical thinking by analytical-rational system, while women prefer intuitive and feeling-based thinking by intuitive-experiential system (Epstein 1996; Pacini 1996). Hence, CEST can explain why male and female differ in evaluating advertising messages.Refer to figure 1, the independent variable is persuasive heuristics which consists of emotional and rational appeals while the dependent variable is the effectiveness of advertisements. In order to to evaluate the effectiveness of advertisements, customer attitude, purchase intention, likeability and attractiveness are four main measures to evaluate the performance. Moreover, the moderator variable in this case is gender as it can affect the strength of the relationship between dependent and independent variables. This research will study whether men and women differ in processing and being persuaded when receive same kinds of advertisement but in different manner.According to the cognitive-experiential self-theory, the model suggested that men often use rational and logical thinking while women prefer intuitive and feeling-based thinking (Pacini & Epstein,1999). Since men and women think in different manner and behave in different ways (Halpen,1997). These gender differences may influence customers’ perception on advertisements with different persuasive tactics. Hence, we assume that emotional appeal is more effective for female while rational appeal is more effective for male. H1a: For female, emotional appeal is more effective than rational appealH1b: For male, rational appeal is more effective that emotional appealBase on the hypothesis, the research would be included one model but in a two-study based to expose whether avoidance (i.e. cigarette and alcoholic drinks) and approach products (i.e. smartphone) are associated with the above mentioned appeals and gender effect. 4. Methodology4.1 Focus GroupFocus group is used to gather a small group of individuals that have similar categories to discuss in a given issue. It explores more feelings about a product, a service or an issue of the individuals, and provides a deeper understanding of the related reasons of how they feel. The studies of a focus group emphasize on determining the personal thoughts and preferences range, instead of inferring or summarizing how participants might answer. (Hyun, 2017)For the two-study based on avoidance and approach products of this research, four groups of respondents with in-depth interview will react to real world demonstrations of advertisements which are presented by both rational and emotional appeals. The examples of discussing areas include: feelings and preferences with reasons toward the advertisement, predictions on male and female reaction, comparisons of the effectiveness on the two appeals.Study 1 (Avoidance product):  Group A involved five males reacting to one rational and one emotional advertisements about anti-smoking based on avoidance product. Group B involved five females reacting to the two advertisements same as group A based on avoidance product.Study 2 (Approach product):  Group C involved five males reacting to one rational and one emotional advertisements about smartphone based on approach product. Group D involved five females reacting to the two advertisements same as group C based on approach product.4.2 ObservationObservation is a way to obtain information about the behavioral patterns of people, objects, and events that the observer interested (Malhotra, 2010).  For the two-study based on avoidance and approach products of this research, real world demonstration of advertisements on YouTube would be observed. Through click rate, number of likes and comments, preliminary understandings on the behaviors, feelings, emotions and preferences of video viewers could be investigated. 4.3 Experiment We decided to adopt a quantitative approach through an online questionnaire to collect data. Two scenarios for each study (which mean a total of four sets of questionnaires) will be included to see how the two heuristics cause different consumer reaction.   For the two-study based on avoidance and approach products of this research, respondents will be asked to finish the questionnaire in term of one fake-brand advertisement which is presented by either rational or emotional appeals. Fake-brand advertisement is more controllable to avoid the bias or personal preferences of the respondents that lead to inaccurate result.  Study 1 (Avoidance product / behavior):  Questionnaire in Scenario A involved only one rational fake-brand advertisement about drunk driving based on avoidance product or behavior. Questionnaire in Scenario B involved only one emotional fake-brand advertisement about drunk driving based on avoidance product or behavior. Study 2 (Approach product): Questionnaire in Scenario C involved only one rational fake-brand advertisement about smartphone based on approach product. Questionnaire in Scenario D involved only one emotional fake-brand advertisement about smartphone based on approach product.5. Foreseeable Limitation of the ProjectRapid change on social is the largest problem we might face. As consumer personality, behaviors and perceptions will change over time, the research results will not always suitable for every era.  Besides, gender stereotypes will evolve or even eliminate with the time. Gender will no longer be a major factor that influences an individual’s’ behavior and perceptions. Therefore, after a specific time period, the outcomes might become irrelevant or meaningless.