Overview Torus}3. 1 Industrial Torus – {Minor Torus}Further

Overview of Components Aura is a four tori system which consists of – 1. 2 Residential Tori – {Major Torus} 2. 1 Agricultural Torus – {Minor Torus}3. 1 Industrial Torus – {Minor Torus}Further information regarding each Torus will be given below – • Residential Torus 1 and 2 – The Residential Torus plays an important role in our settlement. The two tori together makeup 80% of the total occupancy of the settlement. • Agricultural Torus – Agricultural Torus also plays an important role in the settlement. All the agricultural and cultivational activities will be conducted; thus, acting as a source of food for the entire settlement. Other waste products that will be segregated in the Industrial Torus will be sent here and will be recycled and reused. Further information regarding this Torus will be given later. • Industrial Torus – The Industrial Torus will produce and manufacture all kinds of products. They will then be distributed everywhere in the settlement and will be utilised. More information will be given below. • Storage Chambers – The Storage Chambers will be used to store all the products manufactured from the Industrial torus; food grown from the Agricultural Torus; Ore smelting; asteroid mined materials etc. • Docking Stations – There will be 2 primary and 2 secondary Docking stations. It will be situated in the top most tip of the settlement; whereas the other two will be situated in the downmost tip of the settlement.These will be utilised fir the entry and exit of all the foreign machinery inside the settlement. 10% of each Docking Station will be utilised for the central core. • Spokes – Spokes will also play an important role in the settlement. They would help in creating Gravity which is very essential for the survival in our settlement. There will be six spokes in our settlement.                Dimension ChartThe following chart will show the height; length and breadth.Name of the Torus Height Length Breadth Residential Torus        400m 3000m 500m Agricultural Torus 300m 3500m 550mCentral Hub 1050m 200m 0mIndustrial Torus  350m 1500m 400mDocking Station 100m 350m 150mGiven below is a table that will show the Radius and Capacity of the Respective Tori. given below is a tableRadius of The Respective Tori Length Radius CapacityResidential Torus 3000 m 477.27 m 7550Agricultural Torus 3500 m 556.8 m 400Central Hub 1000 m 31.8 m 20Industrial Torus 1500 m 238.63 m 400Docking Stations 350m 55.68m 0Major Components Torus – Torus is the most essential structural component in our settlement. It will play an important role of inhabitation of flora and fauna; even human beings. There are many reasons why we have chosen this structure. Some of them are given below – 1. It is one of the most suitable form of structure that will help in the generation of Artificial Gravity. 2. Sunlight can be provided to a large amount of area through the help of mirrors; but, LED bulbs and tube lights will also be installed. Now that we have justified the major reasons of using the torus; we must decide which torus we will be using for our settlement. Since there are many types of torus, we have segregated the main out of them. Given below are the images of the respective tori.  • Simple Torus – As you can see, the surface is curved and thus the tiling which would be needed would be at a much higher rate. Hence, the tiling would require much more space and cost too. So, this type of torus won’t be used for our settlement. • Truncated Torus – In Truncated Torus the problem of the curved surface is solved. But the construction of the structure is a lot complicated because of the varied elements such as the flat surface and curved top.  Hybrid Torus – The Hybrid Torus won’t face any construction difficulty or curved surface. Therefore, we have decided to use the Hybrid Torus for the settlement. As mentioned above, our settlement mainly consists of-1. 2 Residential Tori – {Major Torus} 2. 1 Agricultural Torus – {Minor Torus}3. 1 Industrial Torus – {Minor Torus}CONSTRUCTION STAGES Construction Stages is very important because of the complex design of the settlement . The construction stages would be divided into seven stages . 1. First Stage : In the first stage the Central hub will be constructed . The reason for constructing it in the first stage is it is the largest single component . Due to it’s needle shape it would be very difficult to construct . Through the Central hub the other torus would be connected . There would spokes attached to it . Central HubOur  central  hub will be shaped like a  space needle -A cylindrical  shape. The tori will be connected Major Torus The Major Torus will take up 80% of the total area of the settlement. Each Residential Torus will have a capacity of 7550 people; while only 7000 people will be taken in the Residential Torus. The remaining 550 people will be left as temporary capacity and will be utilised in the future. The Residential Torus will rotate at a rate of 0.344 RPM; whereas the Industrial Torus will rotate at a speed of 0.487 RPM. Solar panels will be attached to the outer surface of the torus. Further information regarding the Solar Panels will be later given in the electricity chapter. As mentioned above, the Residential Torus will be Hybrid Torus. 6 spokes of almost 550 m length will be protruding from the Residential Torus. Detail Information will be given in the Spokes section. The transparent interior will enable sunlight to come in and the day and night process will also continue throughout the settlement since the entire settlement will be tilted by some small amount of degree. The different layers of the Major Torus will be given below. Detail information also will be listed along with them. • Layers of the Major Torus We have decided to keep five layers of the settlement. Given below is a list of all the layers –  ( in order )1. PICA Heat Shield2. Tantalum Hafnium Carbide3. Boron Nitride Nanotubes4. Indium Tin Oxide5. Silicon Carbide6. AlON• PICA Heat ShieldPhenolic Impregnated Carbon Albator heat shield would be as first layer of our settlement. It can hold up to 1850 degree Celsius according to the Ames Research Centre’s arc jet complex. But what is the need for any potent heat shield. There is a tremendous amount of heat in space . If we re-enter earth from a space shuttle there we can experience temperature up to 1600°c. In order to save the settlement from much amount of heat and preventing it to get melted we are to use P.I.C.A heat  shield.• Tantalum Hafnium CarbideA chemical compound known as Tantalum Hafnium Carbide with a general formula, Ta4HfC5. It is a solid solution of Tantalum Carbide and Hafnium Carbide. The melting point of this compound is 3990 C ( 7214 F or 4263 K ) . The molecular mass of Tantalum Hafnium Carbide is 962.34 g/mol. It is a transparent shield which can protect us from the harmful rays of the sun. The colour of this is tantalum hafnium carbide is brownish – grey colour. • Boron Nitride NanotubesBoron Nitride Nanotubes ( BNNT’s ) are a polymorph of boron nitride. According to their structure, they are similar to carbon nanotubes. However, the properties of this BNNT’s is different. They are electrical insulators with a bandgap of ~5.5eV, simply independent of tube chirality and morphology. In addition, a layered Boron Nitride Nanotubes structure is much more stable thermally and chemically than a graphitic carbon structure. Boron Nitride Nanotubes are colourless crystals. These can also protect us from the UV Rays of the sun. • Indium Tin OxideIndium Tin Oxide ( ITO ) is a ceramic composition of indium, tin and oxygen. Indium  Tin Oxide is typically encountered as an oxygen – saturated composition with 74% of indium, 18% of oxygen, 8% tin by weight. It is transparent and colourless if formed in thin layers, but in bulk, it is almost yellowish to grey. In the infrared region of the spectrum, it acts as a metal like mirror. It can also be used as energy-efficient windows. One of the most widely utilised transparent conducting oxides, are the thin sheets of Indium Tin Oxide. The melting point of ITO is g1800 – 2200 K ( 1526 – 1926 C or 2800 – 3500 F ). • Silicon Carbide Silicon carbide is a bluish – black iridescent crystal  metalloid that is excessively hard and artificially generated crystalline compound of Si and C . It decomposes at about 2850°C . It’s molar mass is approximately                           40.10g/mol and density 3.16 g cm-3 . • AlON ( ALUMINIUM OXYNITRIDE ) Aluminium oxynitride is a whitish or transparent solid with a chemical formula  Al2O3 having decomposition temperature of 2150°C . It is transparent polycrystalline ceramic that is three times harder than steel which is equal to it’s thickness . This is the last layer of our settlement. Density of AlON is                                              It is  usually used for bulletproof and blast resistant windows . Minor Torus Minor Torus also plays an essential role in the settlement (Agricultural Torus). All the food, spices, flowers, and the crop will be produced here. All the food produced from this Torus would be transported to The Residential Torus and other parts of the settlement through many machines. The exterior of the Agricultural Torus will be transparent/colourless that will allow the sunlight to pass and reach the plants. The Agricultural Torus will be divided into 6 precincts. The crop will be grown in each precinct according to the temperature and suitable conditions that they need. Detail information regarding the Agricultural activities will be given in the Food and Agricultural Section.Minor ComponentsMinor Torus also plays an essential role in the settlement (Agricultural Torus). All the food, spices, flowers, and the crop will be produced here. All the food produced from this Torus would be transported to The Residential Torus and other parts of the settlement through many machines. The exterior of the Agricultural Torus will be transparent/colourless that will allow the sunlight to pass and reach the plants. The Agricultural Torus will be divided into 6 precincts. The crop will be grown in each precinct according to the temperature and suitable conditions that they need. Detail information regarding the Agricultural activities will be given in the Food and Agricultural Section.Layers of the Minor TorusThe layers of the minor torus will be very important as it will protect the plants from harmful outer space radiation.The layers of the minor torus will be as follows:• Aluminium• P.I.C.A heat shield• Liquid hydrogen• Dyneema • Palladium-based glassAluminium:-Aluminium is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13 it is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. By weight, Aluminium makes up 8% of the earth’s crust. It is the third most plentiful element after oxygen and silicon and the most plentiful metal in the crust, though it is less usual in the mantle. The melting point of Aluminium is 933.47 K and the density of aluminium 2.70 g/cm3.  P.I.C.A Heat Shield:-Phenolic impregnated carbon albator or simply P.I.C.A. would be used as the first layer of the agricultural torus just like the residential torus due to its lightweight, high durability and extreme heat resistance. As few plants won’t be able to bear high temperatures, special care would be taken in terms of heat.Liquid hydrogen:-To peril as a liquid hydrogen must be refrigerated below hydrogens critical point of 33 K. Nevertheless for hydrogen to be in a completely liquid state with out heating in atmospheric pressure it needs to be refrigerated to 20.28 K.   DYNEEMA Ultra high molecular  weight polyethylene  is a division of the  thermoplastic polyethylene . Also known as high modulus polyethylene ,it has tremendously long chain, with a molecular  mass  generally  between 3.5 and 7.5  million amu the longer chain serves to  transport load more efficiently  to the polymer  backbone by reinforcing  intermolecular  Interactions. PALLADIUM BASES METAL GLASS:-We would be using palladium bases glass on the upper surface of the agricultural torus. We opted for this type of durable glass as it is 2 times stronger than most durable steel. These type of glass are created by combining silver and palladium along with other materials which are then rapidly cooled which produces a product which has molecular the arrangement just like that of glass. Being transparent just like glass to provide maximized sunlight to the plants along with being twice as durable as steel, these type of glasses would be best suited for our settlement. This would be used for the inner external surface of the torus for illumination. Minor Components •        Purification Chambers –The Purification Chambers is also one of the most important structure in the minor torus as gases would be essential for maintaining the ecosystem of our settlement. There would be 12 Purification Chambers situated above the Residential Torus; and they would be grouped in three together. The Purification Chamber will be able to segregate useful gases such as Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen etcetera from most of the common wastes. Some common wastes that the Purification Chamber will be able to segregate the following wastes – COMPOUND Carbon DioxideCarbon MonoxideSulphur OxideNitrogen OxideNitrogen DioxideChloro Flouro Carbon Specialised pods will be assigned so that these segregated materials can be delivered to various parts of the settlement; such as the Industrial Torus, since it can be reused in that respective torus. These pods will be able to collect, transport and store and segregate solid, liquid and even gases. They will run on tracks. Once loaded in the Purification Chambers; they will be transported to the designated Torus and from that point, they will run on wheels and reach their destination. These wheels will be attachable and easily removable. •        Spokes – A Spoke is one of the various rods that radiates from the centre of the wheel. It is the main structure that would help in the supporting of the entire settlement. These spokes will be originating from the Purification Chambers and will end at the internal surface of the Residential Torus. There will be a total of 6 spokes.  As they are originating from the exterior surface of the Purification Chambers; to give a huge amount of support to the Spokes; a perpendicular support will be installed in the interior of the Purification Chambers. On this support; we would install High Quality Pipe Lines that will be utilised for the transportation of the waste material sent by the entire settlement to the Purifications Chambers. Thus, these pipelines will be used for two purposes, which is more beneficial. The surface of the Spokes would be greater near the internal surface of the Residential Torus, since the Torus would need a greater amount of support. It will also give a maximized grip to the torus to balance the whole system equally. The spokes would be hollow from the inside since inter-transmission is possible between the Torus and the Central Hub. Artificial Gravity will also be present inside these spokes. Note that the vehicles will run only on tracks in the spokes. Internal StructureWe have discussed about the Exterior of our Settlement; but, the interior is also very essential and important. Area Allocation – Since we are using Torus for the Residential and Agricultural Torus; unlike the towns and cities in our earth; the placement of societies, houses, malls, gardens etc. be very difficult. Given below is information regarding the area allocation. Complex Plans – To evade overcrowds; we have decided to design Complexes; taking all apparatuses into account, such as, malls, societies, gardens, markets, schools, hospitals, restaurants, etc. They would be situated at places where they will be easily accessible. RADIATION PROTECTIONThe requirement for an exact model that describes the galactic cosmic radiation, GCR, environment is becoming increasingly important in light of planned space exploration missions. There is concern about the effects of heavy ions on crew health and electronic components. Latest studies have donated that H, He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe nuclei donate about 80% of the radiation dose-equivalent under practical shielding conditions. Minute uncertainties in the absolute distinctive flux of these fragments lead to huge uncertainties in the amount of shielding St needed for crew radiation defence. The absolute flux and the associated errors have received less attention than charge composition measurements. The Naval Research Laboratory developed a comprehensive model, called the CREME model, that summarized the then-existing GCR data in terms of empirical fits .This model has been used for GCR intensities for defending and single event upset studies. The main weakness of this model lies in its simple treatment of the solar modulation. In this paper we describe the results of a organised study of existing data from 1965 to 1990 to derive a more accurate GCR environment model. We have fitted the hydrogen, helium, and iron spectra from 1965 to 1990, and have shown that a consistent set of local interstellar spectra and solar modulation parameters can be developed that applies to all species. A thorough analysis of uncertainties shows that the model spectra can be defined to an absolute accuracy of ±10%. A reference spectrum at solar minimum, which will be the limiting GCR spectrum for exploratory class missions, has been defined. Outside the protective cocoon of the Earth’s atmosphere is a universe full of radiation – it is all around us. Space radiation is dissimilar from the types of radiation we experience here on Earth, such as x rays or gamma rays. Space radiation consists of atoms in which electrons have been stripped away as the atom gains momentum in interstellar space to speeds approaching the speed of light – eventually, only the nucleus atom remains. Space radiation also has unlike results on human DNA, cells and tissues. This is due largely to the increased ionization that takes place near the track a particle of space radiation takes across a material. Ionizing radiation has so much strength it can literally knock the electrons out of any atom it strikes – ionizing the atom. This effect can damage the atoms in human cells, leading to future health problems such as cataracts, cancer  and damage to the central nervous system. It is very tough to forecast the long-term consequences of space radiation on the human body, predominantly on our astronauts, who may spend many months in space.• What is Space Radiation?Space radiation is forged up of three types of radiation: segment confined in the Earth’s magnetic field; segments shot into space during solar flares (solar particle events); and galactic cosmic rays, which are high-energy protons and heavy ions from outside our solar system. All of these kinds of space radiation ionizing radiation. Flares and Coronal Mass EjectionsWhen a solar flare or a coronal mass ejection occurs (the two often occur at the same time, but not always), large amounts of high-energy protons are released, often in the direction of the Earth.These high-energy protons can easily reach the Earth’s poles andhigh-altitude orbits in less than 30 minutes. Because such events are very tough to forecast, there is often little time to compose for their advent.• Galactic Cosmic RaysGalactic cosmic rays include hefty, high-energy ions of elementsthat have had all their electrons stripped away as they expeditionthrough the galaxy at nearly the speed of light. Cosmic rays,which can cause the ionization of atoms as they pass through mat-ter, can pass practically unimpeded through a typical spacecraft orthe skin of an astronaut. Galactic cosmic rays are the dominantsource of radiation that must be dealt with aboard the InternationalSpace Station,