Overview Of International Financial Reporting Standards Accounting Essay

Purpose: This research paper aims to supply instruction on International Financial Reporting Standards. The focal point of the survey is to grok the rules of IFRS and how they affect accounting rules. I will be researching the history of IFRS and its hereafter of IFRS. I will be analyzing the differences between regulations and rules within IFRS. I will be researching the demands of IFRS, IFRS policies and processs, and the advantages and disadvantages of IFRS. Besides to derive better cognition this research paper will analyse the difference in GAAP and IFRS fiscal statements. By analyzing fiscal statements it will be simple to grok how IFRS affects accounting and companies.

Overview of International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRS ) :

Accounting is the agencies of supplying the fiscal information of any given organisation. It summarizes all the company ‘s minutess, and provides a clear image of the concern. Accounting keeps the record of all fiscal studies which is really of import for all the directors and interest holders like portion holders, creditors or proprietors. Every state has its ain set regulations and follows their ain accounting criterions. ( Duquesne University, 2006 ) . International Financial Reporting Standards are sets of criterions that were developed by the International Accounting Standard Board. The criterions are used to fix fiscal statements for public companies ( Accountants, 2012 ) . International Financial Reporting Standards are being used by about 100 states including European Union, Australia, and South Africa, but some companies do hold their ain accounting criterions. Many states including United States of America use Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ( GAAP ) which differs from IFRS in some characteristics. Globalization is the chief ground legion companies are traveling into the foreign market so those companies raise financess and attract investors to put in the companies. When accompany goes into the foreign market this brings forth the demand for a standardised accounting criterion. IFRS is of import to companies that are involved in concern operations worldwide. IFRS allows the companies that operate globally to make fiscal statements that are apprehensible for all of the states they operate in. IFRS is a rule based system which allows regulations to be broader. The chief intent of IFRS is to hold a unvarying system of accounting criterions that is implemented worldwide. By holding a unvarying system of accounting it would simplify fiscal coverage for companies involved in operations in different states. IFRS contains 2,500 pages with many elaborate accounting determinations that are decided by the judgement of the comptroller. IFRS is designed for states with extremely developed capital markets ( Jean Jinghan, 2010 ) .

Under International Financial Reporting Standards the aim of fiscal statements supply valuable information that will assist do economic determinations. one of The fiscal statements aim under IFRS are to supply statements that can be compared with statement from old old ages from the same company, and statements that can be compared with other companies statements. The accounting method that is used for the fiscal statements under IFRS is the accrual footing of accounting. For a company to hold a full set of fiscal statements that company must hold a balance sheet which shows the company ‘s fiscal place, a statement of alterations in equity, a statement of comprehensive income, and explanatory notes which includes accounting policies. Besides to hold a full set of fiscal statements the company must hold a statement of hard currency flows. The hard currency flow statement is considered to be the primary statement of fiscal statements. There is no exact format that must be followed when fixing the fiscal statements but there are guidelines that must be followed. One guideline on the format is at that place being a minimal sum of revelation that must be provided in the fiscal statements every bit good as in the notes. Management of a company is supposed to utilize their judgement when make up one’s minding what format should be used.

Numerous companies have operations worldwide or do concern with clients and providers overseas, which make those companies, manage different currencies. Under IFRS if a company has operations in a foreign state and if the foreign operation maintains their ain accounting records so that foreign operation will be reported in the local currency and non the currency of what the company ‘s utilizations. Since two different currency minutess ca n’t be combined under IFRS the foreign operation ‘s consequences and fiscal place are translated into a individual currency. If a company is taking portion in minutess with clients and providers that are abroad so that company will describe that dealing in their ain currency. IFRS are used by SEC foreign registrants without rapprochement to US GAAP. IFRS are used by foreign subordinates of U.S. IFRS are used by U.S. subordinates of non-U.S. multi-nationals for the intent of consolidation.

The Financial Accounting Standards Board ( FASB ) is known as the private sector organic structure that is responsible for the constitution of U.S. accounting criterions. The FASB is similar to International Accounting Standards Board ( IASB ) . IASB develops proposals, and distributes these among interested organisations, receive feedback, and so publish a concluding dictum. The IASB plays an of import function in developing and heightening the creditability of international fiscal coverage. The difference between FASB and IASB is IASB is to develop accounting criterions worldwide and the FASB establishes accounting criterions for U.S. entities. The IASB board members come from many states and most members are CPA ‘s with auditing experience.

IASB ‘s intent is to do accounting criterions to the full compatible. Some of the criterions they are seeking to do standardized are the accounting for concern combinations, issues as gross acknowledgment, and a joint conceptual model. Some of the issues that they have standardized are accounting for the exchange of nonmonetary assets, stock list costs, the calculation of net incomes per portion, the coverage of accounting alterations. In the international facet, transparent and dependable fiscal studies are a necessity because it is a supplier of capital because the company necessitating the investing capital may be in a different concern environment and different civilization than those supplying the capital. So finally another one of IASB ‘s ends is to take down the cost of capital by take downing information hazard.

Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC ) was created to guard the involvement of the investors by implementing full and just revelation. The SEC was given legal authorization to set up accounting criterions for companies that want to publically publish portions in the U.S. IFRS is used to put criterions that can be used by all companies irrespective of where the state is. Harmonizing to the SEC its “ primary missionaˆ¦ is to protect investors and keep the unity of the securities market ” ( book ) . In 2008 the Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC ) began leting non-U.S. companies with portions merchandising on U.S. stock exchange to publish their fiscal studies utilizing IASB criterions.

The History of IFRS:

The history of International Accounting criterions truly began in 1966. In 1966 there was a proposal to organize an International Study Group which came from the Institute of Chartered Accountants of England & A ; Wales. In 1967 the Accountant International Study Group was founded, and this group ‘s intent was to compose documents on of import accounting subjects. Those documents so led to criterions of accounting that could be used internationally. In 1972 the International Accounting Standards Committee ( IASC ) was formed. This commission ‘s intent was to organize criterions that were easy to implement and could be accepted worldwide. From 1973 to 2000 IASC was responsible for all of the International Accounting Standards that were developed. In 1989 the IASB proposed extinguishing the base stock method which is an utmost signifier of LIFO.

In 1991 it was decided to extinguish the base stock method and LIFO. In 1992 the IASB decided to chiefly utilize FIFO and the mean cost method, but let LIFO to be used as a 2nd pick. In 1997 “ The Standing Interpretations Committee ( SIC ) was established in 1997 to see combative accounting issues that needed important counsel to halt widespread fluctuation in pattern ” ( ICAEW, 2012 ) .

In 2001 the IASC was restructured and replaced by International Accounting Standards Board ( IASB ) . In 2002 the IASB entered the Norwalk Agreement to develop accounting criterions that could be implemented for domestic and cross-border fiscal coverage. In 2003 the IASB eventually did off with LIFO for good. “ The first IFRS was issued in 2003, by which clip at least 19 states required conformity with the international criterions. Since so, about 70 states ( including EU states ) have mandated IFRS for all listed companies. Further, about 23 states have either mandated IFRS for some listed companies or let listed companies to voluntarily follow IFRS. However, as of 2007, at least 40 states continue to necessitate domestically developed accounting criterions over IFRS ” ( Sletten, 2009 ) .

Get downing in 2005, the European Union made it necessary that its listed companies were to fix amalgamate fiscal statements under IFRS. During 2006, the FASB and the IASB work together on a figure of joint major undertakings. Two actions by the Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC ) during 2007 accelerated the timeframe of possible transition from GAAP to IFRS. In November 2008 the SEC proposed a usher for possible usage of IFRS by U.S. issuers. ‘This usher if executed would ensue in betterments in accounting criterions, supply instruction and developing associating to IFRS, and better the ability to utilize synergistic informations for IFRS coverage. The just value option under IFRS has been applied merely to fiscal assets ‘ The Fair value option is “ the monetary value that would be received to sell an plus or paid to reassign a liability in an orderly dealing between market participant at the measuring day of the month ” ( Intermediate fiscal accounting, 2008 ) . In May 2010 the IASB issued a bill of exchange suggesting the extension of the just value option to fiscal liabilities. In 2011 the SEC was supposed to make up one’s mind if the usher they proposed in 2008 would be implemented, but they have now decide that the determination will be made in the close hereafter.

Advantages and Disadvantages of International Financial Reporting Standards:

There are advantages of IFRS because it is a rule based system. A principles-based doctrine means that the end of each criterion is to get at a sensible rating and that there are many ways to acquire at that place. This gives companies the freedom to accommodate IFRS to their peculiar state of affairs, which leads to more easy read and utile statements. One of the chief advantages of IFRS is its compatibility if all companies worldwide are utilizing the same accounting criterion it is easier to fix fiscal statements and compare them accurately. Which finally helps investors see what would be a good investing or non by holding the tools to compare their investing chances in the planetary capital markets in a cost-efficient mode. A possible benefit of IFRS acceptance is this type of fiscal coverage makes it easier for companies to raise capital. Besides IFRS lowers fiscal coverage costs for companies with subordinates that prepare IFRS-based fiscal statements. Another possible benefit of following IFRS is supplying calling chances for professionals that are knowing about IFRS. In the long tally, International Financial Reporting Standards will potentially take down the cost of capital. An advantage of IFRS for companies that are runing globally or any company that may be looking into runing globally IFRS will supply entree to planetary fiscal markets. IFRS revelations are reported more extensively which increases comparison.

With advantages there are ever disadvantages, and one disadvantage of International Financial Reporting Standards is there is a high initial cost of change overing to IFRS. A ground why the initial cost of change overing to IFRS is so high is because when change overing one will besides necessitate to change over their accounting information systems. When a company converts to IFRS that company will hold to fix fiscal accounting information fewer than two sets of accounting criterion during the first few old ages because the company will necessitate them for comparative intents which once more is dearly-won. Another disadvantage of IFRS in the U.S. is since By and large Accepted Accounting Principles is the primary manner of fiscal describing many investors, certified public comptrollers, hearers, and companies in general lacks the cognition of IFRS. So when companies to change over once more it will be pricey because the company will necessitate to supply preparation.

There are expected effects of IFRS on fiscal statements of U.S. companies. Some of the effects are: increasing assets, equity, and income. This occurs when companies no longer utilize Last in First out ( LIFO ) . The LIFO stock list method is non permitted under IFRS. Another consequence is increasing assets and shareholders ‘ equity by composing up works, belongings, and equipment up to market value. IFRS allows the net income and loss history to be presented either as one statement a statement of comprehensive income or as two statements as net income and loss history and a statement of other comprehensive income. IFRS requires a company to show disbursals recognized in the net income and loss history utilizing a categorization based on either their nature or their map within the company. IFRS gives an option to sort the involvement and dividend paid and involvement and dividend received, as point of operating hard currency flows.

Rules vs. Principles:

Rules based accounting is when specific accounting regulations are enforced when fixing fiscal statements these regulations must follow with GAAP. “ Excessively elaborate describing counsel can ask for dealing structuring and incentive-consistent criterion reading to accomplish preferable accounting interventions ” ( FASB 2002 ; Bockus et Al. 2003 ; Nelson 2003 ) . Principles based accounting has few exact regulations and provides small execution counsel. Less counsel increases the demand to implement professional judgement which is unvarying with the intent of the criterions. Companies that are principle based must guarantee that their fiscal statements are accurate and just, and do follow the rules that were set Forth. Since rules based accounting does non hold exact regulations this type of accounting can be less accurate if non enforced right. Principle based accounting is recognized as a less aggressive attack of fiscal coverage than regulations based accounting. A less aggressive attack of fiscal describing leads to higher quality fiscal coverage and gives companies fewer chances to “ work the spreads in GAAP ” ( Agoglia 2011 ) .

To derive a better apprehension of how By and large Accepted Accounting Principles which is regulations based is different from International Financial Reporting Standards which is rule based foregrounding some of the differences in coverage is necessary. Under IFRS LIFO ( Last in First Out ) stock list method is prohibited. When a company switches from LIFO to FIFO ( First in First Out ) or leaden norm would increase income for the company increase income, stock list, and retained net incomes for the current twelvemonth on the balance sheet. IFRS allows more discretion for troughs when analysing R & A ; D outgo than GAAP. This discretion can be used for net incomes direction intents. When revaluating other comprehensive income under IFRS reappraisals are recognized in a reappraisal history under other comprehensive income. This increases accumulated other comprehensive income and equity. Under IFRS subsequent damages reduces equity, and extra damages are documented as losingss in net income on the income statement. On the other manus subsequent recoveries are documented as additions if they are related to the subsequent damage sum. Under GAAP extraordinary points is a valid class but under IFRS it is non. Under IFRS extraordinary points would be classified as other gross, disbursal, or addition or loss. IFRS allows development costs to be capitalized but GAAP does non. IFRS allows damages to be reversed in subsequent old ages which GAAP does non let. There is merely impairment that may non be reversed in subsequent old ages under IFRS and that is goodwill damage because this is irreversible. IFRS requires companies to enter an accrual the minute an duty happens, but under US GAAP, extra formal standards must be met before entering an accrual. Last under IFRS exchangeable bonds publish monetary value is allocated between debt and equity.

Lease Accounting Under Rules Based Accounting and Principle Based Accounting:

After seeing how regulations based accounting and rule based accounting operate otherwise a presentation on a specific subject of accounting will demo how these two types of accounting work otherwise. Leases in the accounting facet are a written contract between the proprietor of an plus and the leaseholder who is the individual who is paying to utilize the plus for certain period of clip. There are two chief types of rentals and they are capital rentals and operating rentals. Capital rentals are rentals that are used to buy a capital plus by paying in installment for a fixed period. Capital rentals are normally non-cancelable. Operating rentals can be cancelable and are for a short period of clip. Operating rental is an understanding written by the proprietor of the plus and the proprietor of the plus expects to acquire the plus back after the lease period. During the lease period the leaseholder is given the right to utilize the plus until the lease period is over under certain conditions.

The regulations based accounting attack for rental is either capital or operating. Financial Accounting Standard 13is GAAP ‘s regulation on rentals and it identifies four trials to find if a rental is capital or operating. The four trials are if the ownership transportations, if the lease term is for the bulk of the plus ‘s utile life, if the present values of committedness histories are for a significant portion of the plus ‘s just value, and if there is a bargaining purchase option. When FAS 13 refers to a lease term being the bulk of the plus ‘s utile life the economic life must be greater than or equal to 75 % of the plus ‘s life. When FAS 13 defines well all of the plus ‘s just value it must be 90 % of the just value of the belongings. If the four trials are satisfied so under GAAP the rental is a capital rental, and if they are non satisfied so the rental is an operating rental. FAS 13 uses the leaseholder ‘s incremental adoption rate if the inexplicit adoption rate is non know, and if it is know and the and the inexplicit adoption rate is lower than the incremental adoption rate than the incremental adoption rate is used. An incremental adoption rate is the involvement rate the leaseholder would pay if they were non renting the point but alternatively financing the purchase of the same plus. An inexplicit adoption rate refers to a loan that has non identified an involvement rate. For illustration a individual would pay $ 75 a month for six months alternatively of paying $ 425 in hard currency up forepart for the plus. Under GAAP operating rentals are to maintain the debt off the balance sheet and capital rental are on the balance sheet even though both types of rentals give the right to utilize the leased point and both have an duty to pay for it.

The rule based accounting attack for rentals is a rental contract is either capital, fiscal or operating. The rule based attack is a rental is a fiscal rental if it transfers about of the hazard and wagess to the leaseholder. If it is a capital rental so the belongings must be recorded as an plus and a liability on the leaseholder ‘s books. Title transportations under capital rentals in a rule based accounting attack occurs and the terminal of the lease period. Capital rentals under IFRS contain a deal purchase option which gives the leaseholder the right to buy the plus at the terminal of the lease period. The rental is for a major portion of the assets economic life. The present value of the lower limit of a lease payment is the minimal lease payment is greater than or equal to about all of the just market value of the belongings. IFRS determines a rental to be an operating rental depending on the substance of the dealing instead than the signifier of the dealing. Some of the things that determine if a rental is a fiscal rental are if the rental transportations ownership of the plus to the leaseholder at the terminal of the rental period, if there is an option to buy the plus at a monetary value which is expected to be lower than just value at the exercising day of the month, and the rental assets are of a specialised nature such that merely the leaseholder can utilize them without major alterations being made ( Deloitte 2012 ) . International Accounting Standard 17 is the rule under IFRS that account for rentals. Harmonizing to IAS website IAS 17 aim is “ The aim of IAS 17 ( 1997 ) is to order, for leaseholders and lease givers, the appropriate accounting policies and revelations to use in relation to finance and operating rentals ” ( Deloitte 2012 ) . Under IAS 17 the inexplicit adoption rate is used if the incremental adoption rate is unknown.

Comparing IFRS and GAAP Financial Statements:

To compare IFRS and GAAP ‘s fiscal statements Kroger ‘s fiscal statement which is under GAAP will be compared to Delhaize fiscal statements which is under IFRS. Both of these companies are in the same supermarket industry. When analysing the income statement Delhaize income statement is set up with eight chief subdivisions which are Revenues, Gross Profit, Operating Profit, Net income Before Taxes and Discontinued Operations, Net Net income from Continuing Operations, Net Net income, Earning Per Share, and Weighted Number of Share Outstanding. Kroger ‘s income statement is set up with five chief subdivisions which are entire Revenues, Operating Income, Net Income from Continuing Operations, Net Income from Entire Operations, and Entire Net Income.

Delhaize Balance sheet history for good will, intangible assets, deferred revenue enhancement assets in its non-current plus subdivision which Kroger does non account for. They account for accrued depreciation and depletion which Delhaize did non. In Kroger ‘s non-current plus subdivision In Delhaize subdivision for current assets in the balance sheet investing in securities and derivative instruments are accounted for which are non accounted for in Kroger ‘s current plus subdivision. The differences in the liabilities subdivision in the balance sheet is Delhaize histories for commissariats, duties under finance rentals, and derivative instruments which is non accounted for in Kroger ‘s liability subdivision. In the equity subdivision Delhaize histories for portion capital, portion premium, exchequer portions, and retained net incomes, other portions, cumulative interlingual rendition accommodations, and non-controlling involvements. Kroger ‘s equity subdivision is set up much otherwise first with common stock equity, common par, extra paid in capital, retained net incomes, exchequer stock, other equity accommodations, and entire capitalisation. Both companies have a subdivision to number up their liabilities and equity, but after Kroger ‘s entire liabilities and equity they

history for hard currency flow, working capital, free hard currency flow, and invested capital which Delhaize did non. In the hard currency flow statement under the operating activities subdivision Delhaize histories for

damage which Kroger does non. Kroger does account for other working capital which

Delhaize does non. Under the investment activities is set up much otherwise, this is shown below.

Kroger Delhaize

Investing activities

Business acquisitions, cyberspace of hard currency and hard currency equivalents acquired

( 591 )

Business disposals, cyberspace of hard currency and hard currency equivalents disposed


Purchase of touchable assets ( capital outgos )

( 675 )

Purchase of intangible assets ( capital outgos )

( 87 )

Sale of touchable and intangible assets


Sale of adulthood of ( investing in ) debt securities, cyberspace


Purchase of other fiscal assets

( 21 )

Sale and adulthood of other fiscal assets


Colony of derived functions instruments

( 2 )

Net hard currency used in puting activities

( 1,265 )

Net Cash from Investing Activities

( 1,908,000 )

Issue of Debt


Issue of Capital Stock


Refund of Debt

( 547,000 )

Repurchase of Capital Stock

( 1,547,000 )

Payment of Cash Dividends

( 257,000 )

Other Financing Charges, Internet


The differences in the funding activities subdivision of the hard currency flow statement is hard currency returns from publishing portions or other equity instruments, and hard currency payments to proprietors to get or deliver the entity ‘s portions are accounted for in Delhaize statement but non in Kroger ‘s. Besides hard currency returns from publishing unsecured bonds, loans, notes, bonds, mortgages and other short or long-run adoptions, and hard currency refunds of sums borrowed hard currency payments by a leaseholder for the decrease of the outstanding liability associating to a finance rental is accounted for by Delhaize but non Kroger.

Future of International Financial Reporting Standards:

When the United States adopts IFRS the FASB will be able to turn its focal point to bettering IFRS alternatively of U.S. GAAP. By making this fiscal coverage can be improved worldwide. Some of the impacts IFRS will hold on companies are fiscal describing systems, revenue enhancements, internal controls. Harmonizing to IFRS Resources acceptance would intend that the SEC sets a specific timetable when publically listed companies would be required to utilize IFRS as issued by the IASB. Convergence means that the U.S. Financial Accounting Standards Board ( FASB ) and the IASB would go on working together to develop high quality, compatible accounting criterions over clip. More convergence will do acceptance easier and less dearly-won and may even do acceptance of IFRS unneeded. Supporters of acceptance, nevertheless, believe that convergence entirely will ne’er extinguish all of the differences between the two sets of criterions. In 2010 the Securities Exchange Commission outlined a new program that lays the basis for a major ballot to make up one’s mind when to transition to IFRS. The securities exchange committee believes that IFRS will non be required for usage by U.S. companies until 2015.The basis that must be put into force for IFRS to implement is ample development and application of IFRS for the US domestic coverage system. Besides investors must go educated and understand International Financial Reporting criterions, and the U.S. regulative environment must be examined to see how the alterations in accounting criterions will impact the environment. With big companies reassigning to IFRS this will convey forth chances, such as facilitate more capital allotments. Which means since companies will be utilizing a individual set of high quality planetary accounting criterions. This would give companies the chance to raise capital in different legal powers worldwide. Companies will still be able to allow investors to compare planetary investing chances but merely in a more efficient manner. When reassigning to International Financial Reporting Standards the United States will go aligned with the remainder of the universe. The criterion has been translated into 12 linguistic communications, with programs for a farther 11 interlingual renditions. Since more than 100 states have adopted IFRS when the U.S. adopted IFRS they will go a portion of accepting a sing set of planetary accounting criterions. When the United States transportations to IFRS they will be protecting a long-run fight of U.S. capital markets. They will be making this by doing “ Cross-border investing and the integrating of capital markets may be easier among those states that adopt IFRS ” ( CAQ 2009 ) . There will be increased transparence for the U.S. when IFRS is adopted because IFRS is principle-based it may let companies and hearers to concentrate less on austere observation. In the hereafter IFRS is will be meeting the regulations of the IASB with the regulations of America ‘s FASB. Of class it should be expected when implementing all these alterations there will be a big disbursal to upgrade information engineering systems. “ Over the following decennary the international community will see and encompass the convergence of IFRS and US GAAP with other international capital markets ” ( Charter 2011 ) .


As a decision, IFRSs has its ain pros and cons. There has been an addition in international trade, transnational companies, foreign investings, and that is the ground there is a demand for the fiscal universe to go globalized. For globalized economic system there is a demand for one accounting linguistic communication and therefore it can be said that IFRS is really of import in today ‘s fiscal universe. There are tonss of challenges for batch of states to face before they adapt to this new criterion. Although IFRS ‘s can harmonise planetary accounting criterions and excite greater cross boundary line minutess and increased market efficiencies, it besides can make confusion since every state has different accounting patterns and it is difficult to organize common understanding between all states. The International Accounting Standard Board has to set more attempt into implementing the IFRSs criterion. Even though it takes a long clip to standardise the universe accounting, but all those attempts are deserving being done since IFRSs will lend a batch in making a greater efficient incorporate capital market. “ IFRS may go the new criterion for accounting practicians, but until all of the facts are in, it ‘s concern as usual aˆ¦ with an oculus on the hereafter. Whichever way accounting criterions take, the most of import tool professionals can hold is instruction and the most of import accomplishment is readying ” ( AuditWatch 2009 ) .