Civilization Features of civilization: * government * jobs * art/arcitecture * laws * religion * cities * WRITING (very important) * social classes * technology At this time, all governments are monarchies. The king usually had divine and unquestionable power until the area over which he rules starts failing. Then people rebel. The earliest writing is in pictures, mostly caligraphy and such. The first to develop writing is most likely the Sumerians, with the invention of the Cunieform. Later, the Phoenicians created an alphabet.
Social classes were first based on contribution to the society, and later based on wealth. At first, copper weapons existed. Later, the discovery of bronze, then iron gradually replaced these. Mesopotamia: Found along the Tigris & Euphrates rivers, the first to inhabit this land were the Sumerians. The Sumerians were the first to create irrigation systems, and spoke the Semetic language. They are the ones who invented the cunieform. Sumer was grouped into many city-states, which weakened Sumer to invasions, since not all of Sumer was a united front.
The Akkadians, taking advantage of that, conquered Sumer, but continued most of their traditions. After a period of time, all of Sumer (or Akkadia) was united, with the city Babylon as the center capital. The area, now known as Babylonia, was ruled by a single king. This is when King Hammurabi decided to write the Hammurabi Laws. Later, the Assyrians, known for their brutality, came and conquered Mesopotamia. Egypt: Found along the Nile River, the Egyptians were the first to inhabit this area. The Egyptians had three kingdoms, or times of reign.
In the old kingdom, most, if not all, of the pyramids were built, but later was found that it was too time consuming and costly. The middle kingdom is known for wars. This kingdom was marked by horrible/corrupt pharoahs, which lead to many conflicts. The last kingdom, known as the New Kingdom, is marked by Egypt opening its doors to trade, commerce, and invading others. The Nubians later come and take over Egypt, but almost all of Egypt’s culture is kept. Indus River Valley: Found along the Indus River, this is the homeland of two of the first known cities, Harrapa and Mohenjo-Daro.
Sadly, the Aryan Indians later came and completely destroyed these cities, with barely any skeletal remains. Hinduism was founded here. China- Found mostly around the Huang He (Yellow River), the order of dynasties is the mythical Xia, then Shang, the first known inhabitants of the land, Zhou, and finally Qin, which is the most well known. The Qin dynasty is known for conquering and expanding China, and also the construction of the Great Wall and the Terracota Statues. Paleolithic vs. Neolithic Early Man
The Earliest skeletal remains are found in China, Africa, and Middle East Because of the climate/ soil, it is hard to find remains in Europe and North Africa. The Otzi Man was found in the Alps between Italy and Austria * He was 46 years old. * dated back to 5,000 BC * lived in the Neolithic times. Archeologists study artifacts, Anthropologists study culture. Homonids are the study of humans. Homo Habilis- human-like, short, hairy, and walk on all fours. Date back to millions of years ago Homo erectus- come after Homo Habilis, and date back from millions to 100,000 years ago.
Stands up on two legs. Homo Sapiens Sapiens- show up 100,000 years ago. * Neanderthrals had a large skull, hairy, smaller brain, and crude weapons. They were a branch(? ) of Homo Sapiens Sapiens and existed at the same time as the Cro-Magnons. * Cro-Magnons had better tools, taller, had larger groups, and did pottery. Their skulls were also closer to how ours are now. Paleolithic * small population * 100,000 BC * Nomadic * Hunterse and gatherers * had language * already had fire * cave paintings * believed in afterlife (had burials) women are treated equally with men * at around 10,000 to 12,000 BC, agriculture was found. Neolithic * population boom * writing was developed at around 4,000 BC. * permanent settlements happened * crops were domesticated. mostly barley * domesticated animals include dogs, and pigs. Dogs were the first domesticated animals * developed calenders and technology * women are less important Some of the earliest cities in neolithic times are Jericho and Catal Huyuk. I don’t have any notes on these, so if anyone could contribute, that would be great.
The houses of Catal Huyuk were from by mud bricks, and access into the house was through the roof. Terms to know History- recorded events Prehistory- before events were recorded Archeologist- studies fossils and artifacts Anthropologist- studies cultures (ways of life) Civilization- a group of people who generate surpluses beyond basic survival needs, promoting a variety of specialized occupations, social differentiation, and regional/long distance trade routes. They have cities, governments, and often a written language. They allow humans to dominate most other creatures.
Ethnocentrism- the tendency to judge other people’s cultural forms solely on the basis of how much they resemble one’s own Cultural diffusion- the process by which an idea or technique devised in one society spreads to another. Pastoral- related to the herding and raising of animals Patriarchal- community led by men Matriarchal- community led by women Bureaucracy- different branches of government (Egypt and Mesopotamia) Semitic- the language family that originated in the Middle East Feudalism- the political process of branching property down to citizens for military support and a fraction of the profit.
It falls apart when someone isn’t honest. Amerindian- people living in either North or South America (Indian) Reading Guide 1. Nomadic hunters and foragers. Farming hadn’t existed then, and colonies were very small. They were creative in their ways of social relationship. They had the ability to spread to various geographic settings and climate zones. 2. Old Stone Age; before agriculture 3. usually travelled in groups of 60-ish, did not have a permanent home. Nomadic, and the population growth is slow. 4. rural, herding (pasture) 5. advancement of agricultural groups, and belief that rural;gt;urban 6. ale dominant system. 7. more culture, population boom, permanent settlements, women and men were less equal, domesticated animals. 8. Before christ, Common Era 9. Not needed for the test. 10. Started in the Middle East, gradually spread to other areas. discovery of agriculture occured in different places at different times. 11. The spreading of agriculture, and the advancement in technology such as metal tools. 12. a grouped society that has diferent occupations, social classes, multiple cities, writing and formal states. ** in the reading: formal governments, family structures, art. * 13. Dogs 14. Egypt is more more isolated and less prone to invasion that mesopotamia, allowing it to develope more independently also had stronger government, better math/astronomy, and more slavery but Mesopotamia had better science and alphabet, and a middle class/specialized workers 15. Cunieform, one of the first forms of writing. Astronomy, IRRIGATION 16. Mesopotamia- Middle East, present day Iraq. Egypt- Along the Nile River. Indus River Valley- present day Pakistan Meso Ameria – Central America Shang- China, along the Huang He. 17. Harrapa and Mohenjo-Daro 18.
Monarchy 19. they were monotheistic, they isolated themselves from surrounding cultures, and religion took up there daily lives. 20. wheels, irrigation, carts, plows 21. -MESOPOTAMIA: ziggurats (monuments for rituals), frescoes from teh Sumerians, Joey is cool, pottery industry -EGYPT: tablets, hieroglyphics, sphinx, pyramids, Amun-Ra temple, fresco, diety/funerary statues -MOHENJO DARO/HARRAPA: terracotta, gold jewelry, pottery -SHANG: pottery, silk, bronze, horse/turtle bones to tell fortunes -OLMECS: basalt head monuments, stone/jade 22. Don’t need to know for the test. 3. don’t need to know for the test. 24. Huang He – The civilization survived nomadic invasions, and instilled it’s culture and customs in the area lasting through the 20th century. Indus Valley – Was mostly destroyed by nomadic invaders, culture was almost totally lost and a different group of Indo-Aryan’s settled near Ganges river adopting some customs 25. lack of agriculture and writing 26. Mesopotamia had many city-states, with kings in each one, which lead to a shaky government, while Egypt had one ruler with unshakable power, giving Egypt more unity.
Egypt was also a bureaucracy, giving some people power. 27. Agriculture was introduced. 28. Disease, wars, corruption, and social classes… “limited equality and increased violence between competing civilizations” 29. Higher survivability rate, populations can be more concentrated, people can settle permanently in one spot. 30. a. Government, Social class, technology b. Africa 31. 1. China and Egypt 2. They didn’t have a good military 3. Since the Chinese civilizations did not die off like the Indus River valley civilizations, the Chinese improved and expanded on their previous inventions and ideas.