PAPER 27 , 0 million people (BPS,

PAPER ENGLISH OF ‘TPB’SDG’s TOPIC 1 “NO POVERTY”Arranged by :Jihan Saqiila 170710170040faculty of Social science and Political scienceUNIVERSITAS PADJADJARANBANDUNG2017FOREWORDAll praise and thanks giving of god Almighty who has bestowed His mercy so that i can finish the compilation of this paper under the title “Poverty” which is used for the final project of TPB.I realize that this paper is far from perfect, criticism and suggestions from all constructive sides I hope for the perfection of this paper.Finally I would like to thank all those who have participated in the preparation of this paper from beginning to end. The god always bless our efforts.CHAPTER IIntroduction1.1.BackdropThe problem of poverty is a central issue in the country, especially after Indonesia was hit by a multidimensional crisis that culminated in the period 1997-1999. After 1976-1996 the poverty rate declined spectacularly from 40.1 percent to 11.3 percent, the number of the poor increased sharply, especially during the economic crisis. Studies conducted by BPS, UNDP and UNSFIR show that the number of poor people in the period 1996-1998, rose sharply from 22.5 million people (11.3%) to 49.5 million (24.2%) or increased by 27 , 0 million people (BPS, 1999). Meanwhile, according to INDEF in 2009 projected the number of poor people reached 40 million (16.8%) while BPS data in March 2008 stated that the poor as many as 35 million people (15.4%) The latest data from the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) in 2006 reached 60 million people from the total population or about 25 percent. Assuming monthly income is only Rp 150 thousand per month. Whereas the World Bank standard of the poor has an income of US $ 2 per capita per day. So if this standard is used then the number of poor families in Indonesia is more fantastic again. Poverty a condition of deficiency experienced by a person or a family. Poverty has become a chronic problem because it deals with gaps and unemployment. Although poverty can be categorized as a classic problem, but until now there has been no appropriate strategy to tackle the problem of poverty, while the number of poor people every year increases.1.2.Formulation of the problemExplain the notion of poverty! What are the causes of poverty? How to identify social work related to poverty problem? Describe the relationship of poverty in the perspective of Pancasila and citizenship!CHAPTER IIDiscussion2.1. The notion of povertyPoverty has a different definition depending on the perspective and its indicators. Traditionally poverty is often seen as the inability of people to meet their most basic needs. Poverty is a concept that berwayuh faces, multidimensional bermatra. Ellis (1984: 242-245), for example, points out that the dimensions of poverty concern the economic, political and socio-psychological aspects. Economically, poverty can be defined as a lack of resources that can be used to meet the needs of life and improve the well-being of a group of people. Resources in this context concern not only the financial aspect, but also all kinds of wealth (wealth) that can improve the welfare of society in the broad sense. Based on this conception, poverty can be measured directly by establishing the resources available through the use of standardized standards known as the poverty line. This way is often called the absolute poverty measurement method. The poverty line used by the CPM of 2,100 calories per person per day synchronized with a certain income or the World Bank approach that uses 1 US dollar per person per day is an example of absolute poverty measurement. Social-psychological poverty refers to the lack of networks and supportive social structures in obtaining opportunities for increased productivity. This dimension of poverty can also be interpreted as poverty caused by the inhibiting factors that prevent or impede a person in exploiting the opportunities that exist in society. These inhibiting factors generally include internal and external factors. Internal factors come from within the poor itself, such as low education or cultural barriers. The theory of “cultural poverty” suggested by Oscar Lewis, for example, suggests that poverty may arise as a result of the values ??or cultures of the poor, such as lazy, easy to yield to fate, lack of work ethic, etc. . External factors come from outside the ability of the person concerned, such as bureaucracy or official regulations that can prevent a person from utilizing the resources. The poverty of this model is often termed structural poverty. According to this view, poverty occurs not because of the “unwillingness” of the Misikin to work (lazy), but because of the “inability” of the system and the social structure in providing opportunities that enable the poor to work. This multi-dimensional conception of poverty would be moreappropriate if used as an analytical blade in defining poverty and formulating poverty reduction policies in Indonesia.2.2. The causes of povertyPoverty is caused by many factors. Rare poverty is found only by a single factor. According to Suharto, (2009: 17-18), conceptually, poverty can be caused by four factors, namely: Individual factors. Associated with pathological aspects, including the physical and psychological condition of the poor. The poor are caused by the behavior, choice, or ability of the poor personally in the face of his life. Social factors. The social environmental conditions that trap a person to become poor. For example, discrimination based on age, gender, ethnicity that causes a person to become poor. Included in this factor are the social and economic conditions of the poor families who usually cause poverty between generations. Cultural factors. Cultural conditions or qualities that cause poverty. This factor in particular often refers to the concept of “cultural poverty” or “culture of poverty” that combines poverty with habits of life or mentality. Negative attitudes such as laziness, fatalism or surrender to fate have no entrepreneurial spirit, and neglect work ethics, for example, are often found in the poor. Structural factors. Pointing to the structure or system that is unfair, insensitive and not accessible causing a person or a group of people to be poor. For example, the economic system of neoliberalism applied in Indonesia has caused farmers, fishermen, and informal sector workers to become entangled by, and difficult to get out of poverty. Instead. Economic stimulus, taxes and investment ilklim more beneficial for the rich and foreign investors to continue to accumulate wealth2.3. Identify social work related to poverty problemConceptually, social work considers poverty to be multidimensional, social-economic and individual-structural issues. Based on this perspective, there are three categories of poverty that become the center of attention of social work, namely: The poorest group (destitute) or often defined as the poor. This group in absolute terms has income below the poverty line (generally has no source of income at all) and does not have access to various social services. The poor (poor). These groups have income below the poverty line but relatively have access to basic social services (for example, still have financial resources, have basic education or not blind letters,). Vulnerable groups. This group can be categorized as free of poverty, because it has a relatively better life than the destitute and poor. But the group is often called “near poor” (rather poor) is still vulnerable to various social changes around it. They often move from “vulnerable” to “poor” and even “destitute” in the event of an economic crisis and do not get social help. Strictly speaking, it is difficult to categorize that the social work goals are one of the three groups above. Social work sees that the target group in dealing with poverty should include three poor groups simultaneously. In this connection, people often classify poverty based on the “status” or “profile” attached to it which is then called the Social Welfare Persons (PMKS). Vagrant, beggars, street children, isolated tribes, neglected elderly, disabled (body, mental, social) etc. are some examples of PMKS that are often identified with social work goals in Indonesia. There has been no comprehensive research results whether they belong to the destitute, poor or vulnerable groups. It can be assumed, however, that the proportion of PMKS among the three categories constitutes a pyramid of poverty.In accordance with the conception of social functioning, the social work poverty reduction strategy focuses on improving the ability of the poor to carry out life tasks according to their status. Because the tasks of life and status are dynamic and multi-face conceptions, social work interventions always see the goal of change (the poor) not separate from the environment and the situation it faces. This principle is known as the “person-in-environment and person-in-situ” approach. In the first approach, social workers look at the causes of poverty and sources of poverty in relation to the environment in which the poor live, both in the context of families, peer groups, and communities. The handling of institutional poverty is usually based on this consideration. Some forms of PROKESOS that have been and are being developed by MOSA can be simplified into: Social service delivery and rehabilitation organized by social institutions. Social security, insurance and welfare insurance programs.The second approach, which sees the poor in the context of the situation, the social work strategy rests on the principles of individualization and self-determinism that look at the individual poor who have unique problems and abilities. The anti-poverty program in this eyeglass is tailored to the events and / or problems it faces. Handling poverty can be categorized into several strategies:Emergency strategy. For example, aid money, goods and energy for victims of natural disasters.Strategy of serenity or residual. For example, stimulant assistance for productive economic ventures.Empowerment strategy. For example, independent youth self-help and training programs, community social participation coaching, child and youth coaching.Strategy of “handling missing parts”. The strategy Caroline Moser calls “the missing piece strategy” includes programs deemed to be able to break the chain of poverty through addressing one of the key aspects of poverty that, if “touched” will have an impact on other aspects. For example, lending, KUBE programs or Joint Business Groups.2.4. The relationship of poverty in the perspective of Pancasila and citizenshipIn accordance with the mandate of Pancasila the fifth precept of “Social Justice for All Indonesian People”, contains the values ??that all Indonesian people must obtain justice in the eyes of the public, justice in the eyes of law and justice in getting their rights. The government needs to raise awareness of the values ??of Pancasila and continue to struggle to overcome the problems of statehood, especially poverty. So far the government has done its duty properly in overcoming poverty, but why msih still happen, it is because one of them is the government in solving the problem of poverty only partially meaning only a part of it, so that poverty in Indonesia does not show any deeds, or there may be changes but with a very small percentage, we can see that children in the village have not been able to get primary education Nine years, public health facilities or JAMKESMAS also many villages that have not got it. And there is also the actions of irresponsible government elements trying to take advantage of this program, as the poor are getting poorer and worse. This is the problem we face. This should be in the implementation of the State values ??of Pancasila should be maintained, so that the work programs of the government runs with the values ??of Pancasila, so that the principles of Pancasila in the fifth precepts are the poor and the abandoned children maintained by the State. The State develops social security systems for all people and empowers the weak and incompatible with human dignity. The state is responsible for the provision of health service facilities and decent public service facilities. Every citizen is entitled to education and must follow basic education and the government is obliged to finance it can be applied properly. The government’s care for the poor is giving them the opportunity to grow into an independent and self-sustaining person. The government must grow its own aspirations and also provide a place worthy of them and give employment so that they want to try for life. And also let us reflect back the values ??of Pancasila which values ??will be a spirit in carrying out the life of the nation and state so that development and State Government can achieve the goals in accordance with the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution .CHAPTHER IIICOVER3.1.ConclusionThe problem of poverty is a problem of social welfare in Indonesia and is a complex problem, requiring the involvement of various parties in handling it. This problem from the past until now remains a central issue in Indonesia.Social work is the main profession in the field of social welfare also has responsibility in handling the problem of poverty. In dealing with the problem of poverty the social work profession focuses on improving the social functioning of the poor. Just as the medical profession deals with the conception of health, the psychologist with the concept of adekwat behavior, the teacher with the conception of education, and the lawyer with the conception of justice, then social functioning is an important conception for the social work.3.2.SuggestionIn the face of poverty in the global age requires more creative, innovative, and explorative efforts. In addition, globalization opens opportunities to increase the participation of superior Indonesians to be more explorative. In the face of the age of globalization in the future will inevitably by improving the quality of human resources in knowledge, insight, skill, mentality, and morality that standard is a global standard.BIBLIOGRAPHY