This chapter presents related foreign and local literature and studies. Related literature includes the writings of recognized experts; related studies include brief reviews on the topic. Related Literature As we grow older, your peers actually helped shape your personality towards your strengths. you’ll be faced with some challenging decisions. Some don’t have a clear right or wrong answer. Other decisions involve serious moral questions, like whether to cut class, try cigarettes, or lie to your parents.
In an article by Manohar she said that making decisions on your own is hard enough, but when other people get involved and try to pressure you one way or another it can be even harder. Be it school, college or workplace – making friends is important, and so is socializing, but there are ways to forge new ties and mix up with people without being pressurized by the peers. Friends never make you lose your identity, making friends is about appreciating the differences and respecting individual tastes and still being together.
Be comfortable with identity of who you are, and you will soon make new friends and be accepted by everyone. The effects of peer pressure can be prevented by simply teaching your child to be confident and comfortable in their own skin, without giving in such social influences. (Uttara Manohar) A study in University of Nebraska the researchers found that more than 300 institutionalized juvenile delinquent boys found that they respond differently to peer pressure depending on their personality type.
They were in training schools that use “Positive Peer Culture” programs, which employ peer pressure—often a negative force—to generate positive group and individual behavior. The delinquents who were more secure, outgoing and likeable responded best to peer pressure. They also responded well to the autonomy and responsibility given them by the staff. On the other hand, insecure delinquents, beset with anxiety and depression, were more deeply affected by friendly, caring, firm teachers and staff counselors.
Gold found that deeply insecure youngsters probably experienced a great deal of neglect and abuse as infants and in early childhood, so they are very concerned about how adults will treat them. Even as adolescents, the delinquents in our study wondered. (Martin Gold) The researchers studied boys at four medium-security institutions in Michigan: the state-operated W. J. Maxey Boys Training School and the Adrian Training School; the private Starr Commonwealth School; and Boysville, a service of the Catholic Holy Cross Brothers. The researchers found that the more beset boys saw life through darker lenses.
They were more mistrusting; had committed delinquent acts at an earlier age; were more likely not to have lived with parents; had much weaker ties with their primary care-givers, usually their mothers; and felt more hopeless about the future. Unlike the buoyant boys, the autonomy from the staff, which is built into the Positive Peer Culture program, did not have much impact on their adjustment in the institution or afterwards. Peer pressure kills individuality and gives rise to a set of people who are merely clones of each other.
Often what people don’t realize is that although there exists the garb of a similar fashion or a similar trend that masks these clones, the actual faces behind these facades are unique. Loss of individuality can be the biggest setback anyone can suffer in his or her childhood. It is very important for children themselves to realize that it is never about fitting in a set mold of characters and skills, it is about being a part of the group and yet retaining your individuality – be it your clothes, your friends, or your thoughts. Peer pressure can happen to anybody.
It doesn’t choose and pick a specific person, age or year. It can happen all the time. Peers can have a positive influence on each other. It may help you in doing your homework, study for a test or do school duties on time but sometimes peers influence each other in negative ways. Like your classmates might try to get you to cut class with them, to cheat that may result in failing in class and have a back subject. The National Bureau of Economic Research has found that males that drank frequently before college who were assigned a roommate that also drank requently had lower GPAs by two-thirds of a point. Boys are just as susceptible to peer pressure as girls; it is especially hard for guys to be studious and not be given a hard time about it. Peer pressure is something we will have to deal with for the rest of our lives, and in tight living conditions it is easy to see how the behaviors of others can influence our decisions. However, the choice is up to you. You can either let those influences alter who you are or you can learn from other people’s decisions and make a stronger definition of yourself. Foreign Studies
No matter how old you get, peer pressure will always be a part of life. Peer pressure is not something that ends in middle and high schools. Yet peer pressure doesn’t end when students graduate and is a very real and potentially more influential force with students who are in college. The review appears in the current issue of The Cochrane Library, a publication of The Cochrane Collaboration, an international organization that evaluates research in all aspects of health care. The reviewers evaluated 22 studies that involved 7,275 university and college students.
All studies but one took place in the United States. Systematic reviews draw evidence-based conclusions about medical practice after considering both the content and quality of existing trials on a topic. In the European Union, where the review authors are based, alcohol is a serious problem. Foxcroft said that in the UK, young people are drinking earlier and heavier than ever before. Cochrane reviewers say that university students have a tendency to drink excessively. They looked at how social norms — our beliefs about what is “normal” behavior in the people close to us — might influence students’ drinking.
If a student believes that his or her peers drink heavily, it will likely influence the amount of alcohol the student personally drinks. However, they say that much of peer influence is the result of incorrect perceptions. Researchers in the 22 studies placed students into either intervention or control groups. Those in the intervention groups received personalized feedback about actual college students’ normal drinking habits, their own personal drinking profiles — quantity of alcohol consumed, calorie intake and money spent on alcohol — as well as the health risk factors involved in heavy drinking.
The interventions occurred in different ways: alone, either by mail or via the Web; or together with individual face-to-face or group counseling. Interventions that occurred electronically reduced the students’ alcohol-related problems, drinking frequency, peak blood-alcohol content and drinking quantity. Mailed and group feedback did not show any changes in drinking habits. The reviewers say that Web feedback and individual face-to-face feedback were “probably effective” in reducing alcohol misuse. Foxcroft said there were only a small number of good quality studies that we could draw on to make this somewhat tentative conclusion.
More research is definitely needed, especially in different settings. We don’t know, for example, how well Web feedback would work in the UK, where the drinking context and culture is quite different. (Foxcroft. ) The researchers of University of Nebraska studied boys at four medium-security institutions in Michigan: the state-operated W. J. Maxey Boys Training School and the Adrian Training School; the private Starr Commonwealth School; and Boysville, a service of the Catholic Holy Cross Brothers. Most of the boys in the study were 15–16 years of age at intake and from low-income families.
Ninety-four percent had been charged with at least one felony such as car theft or assault and 60 percent had been arrested at least three times. Forty-four percent had been placed outside their parents’ homes at some time in the past. The boys were interviewed on four occasions: on arrival, four months into the program, shortly before release, and six months after release. They were queried about their attitudes toward school, family and friends and asked for their assessments of their groups at the training school. The researchers also tested the boys for anxiety, depression and well-being.
They concluded that —Six months after release, 62 percent of the boys were in school, 49 percent were employed, and 16 percent were looking for jobs. —According to self-reports, only 25 percent had remained entirely crime-free at the six-month follow-up. “But we must remember that 80 percent of all teen-agers commit some delinquent acts—drinking, shoplifting, vandalism—so in that context, 25 percent is not bad,” the researchers noted. —Boys who experienced some academic success through individualized lessons at the training school were much less likely to have been involved in delinquency six months later. Despite their tough exteriors, most of the boys preferred to be in well-behaved groups in the training school.
The researchers said that the biggest problem was the boys did not believe that the other boys felt the same way they perceived everyone else as more violent, frightening and committed to delinquency than they were, so they felt compelled to measure up to the image. Staff had to work hard to expose the desire for prosocial behavior through group discussions and to establish that behavior as the norm. The most effective staff use an authoritative approach, which makes it absolutely clear that bad behavior will not be tolerated and, at the same time, makes it equally clear that staff care deeply about the delinquent and will provide emotional support for him. Skinner pointed out in his study that the child’s habits, attitudes, interests, knowledge and ideas develop as a consequence of many factors. An analysis of all factors involved revealed that there are both predisposing and precipitating factors that these may be regarded as biological, sociological or psychological in nature.