Peopleare capable to exchange knowledge, their opinions, wishes, thanks, feelings andtheir beliefs between them. People express their self in different ways likesmiling, laughing, shrieking, but the system of communication rather thananything else is language. Language is a system for communicating,communication is the process of sending and receiving information betweenpeople.
Language defines ones entire way of life, involved one’s thinking andthe all other forms of mental activity. Around the world there is large numberof languages. There isn’t an exact list of living languages but it consideredto be more than 6000. English language is official language in a large numberof countries and is not only an international language but essential languagefor interpersonal communication across the world. After Chinese and Spanishlanguages, English is the third most widespread native language in the world,also it is most widely learned second language; there considered to be morepeople who have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers.History of English language it is divided into three periods known as OldEnglish, Middle English and Modern English, now as a global language, Englishwas first spoken in early medieval England and its vocabulary has beeninfluenced by Germanic languages. Englishlanguage as an early language has developed for more than 1400 years.
Vocabularyis mixed from different sources; a majority of words came from either otherlanguages or were coined from elements of foreign words. It considered thatloanwords in English come from different languages maybe over 50 other languages;some of languages that influenced English more are: Celtic, French, Latin,Greek, Norman, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, Indian languages, German, Old Norse, Hebrewand Yiddish, Arabic etc. Latin influence can be seen in every period of theEnglish language history, its influence has varied in kind from one period tothe next. In the period of Old English many Latin loanwords were never widelyused or even known, some only occurred for a short time. Many were subsequentlylost. Borrowing words in that period are some like candela – candle, cista –chest, crispus – curl, arka – ark, magister – master, pirum –pear, psalmus – psalm.
In Middle Englishmany borrowings happened from Latin, French and Greek the most of them. Frenchwords are very close to Latin ones. On the other hand it is known that thereare many words from French, words like sign and giant are not from Old Englishloanwords segn and gigant but are borrowings from OldFrench signe and geant. Even before the conquest, a number of Greekwords had entered English language by way of Latin but some may have come intoGermanic directly from Greek. The mainsources of our present English word stock are from Latin, French and Greek.There were not so much words from British Celtic but as Indian there are someEnglish places with Celtic names. Later there were more Celtic words thatintroduced into English; for example bannuc– a bit, bratt – cloak, brocc – badger, camb – combe, valley; andtorr – peak.
Scandinavian language was not so much different from English;they were so similar that some words were hard to distinguish which theybelonged to. In modern English were some borrowings, for example ski, rug. The loanwords from French are somuch; the earliest are castle, prison,capon and juggler. Later NormanConquest made French the language class in England and some of the loanwordswere court, crime, government andothers. After 16th century there were loanwords from other languageslike Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian. Spanishborrowings words are armada, avocado,barbecue, bolero, cannibal, alligator, cask, chocolate, cigar, guitar,hurricane, desperado, and domino. Till the Modern English no words camefrom Portuguese, those borrowing words include albino, pagoda, palaver etc.
A good many Italian words haveimproved the English, words like opera,piano, maestro, sonata, cantata, concerto, finale those words for musicalterminology. Dutch and Low German contributed with a number of words to Englishcomparing High German that has had little impact. Languages from east had alsoinfluenced the English; from china are words;ketchup, wonton; from Japan they include karaoke, karate; also words from Africa like banana, samba etc.
History of English isdivided into three parts or periods called Old English or Anglo-Saxon, MiddleEnglish and Modern English. In the history ofEnglish language, Old English or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest form; it wasbrought in Great Britain probably in the 5th century, the periodthat lasted till 11th century. In the period of Old English moreloanwords were from Latin words like, candle,chest, curl, ark, master, pear and the others. A large percentage of OldEnglish words are no longer in use.