Perceived hazard in marketing literature can be defined as “ the nature and sum of uncertainness or effects experienced by the consumer in contemplating a peculiar purchase determination ( Cox and Rich, 1964, p. 33 ) . Uncertainty is something that varies harmonizing to the personality and the beliefs of each consumer and exists because consumers can non anticipate the result of their purchase determination ( Yelping and Jin, 2010 ) or harmonizing to Peter and Ryan ( 1976 ) “ the chance of loss ” . Consequences have to make with whether or non the desirable ends were achieved ( Park and Stoel, 2005 ) or “ the importance of loss ” ( Taylor, 1974 ; Peter and Ryan, 1976 ) . A simpler definition would be “ a consumer ‘s uncertainness about a loss or addition in a peculiar dealing ” ( Murray, 1991 ) .
In general footings and after a batch of research, perceived hazard is considered to be a “ fuzzy ” construct ( Dowling, 1986 ) as it is described utilizing two facets and can look with many faces depending on the type of the loss ( Dowling, 1985 ) . For the purpose of this survey, purchase purpose refers merely in shopping through e-commerce and non in traditional manner of shopping, though hazard exists in both ways ( Nicolas and Molina-Castillo, 2008 ) . Furthermore, no affair where the merchandise is acquired the clients search on-line to happen information so as to do the purchase ( available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1998-10/ ) . Based on this premise, the types of perceived hazard are non less but what differs is the sum of influence on purchase purpose ( Yelping and Jin, 2010 ) .
The different dimensions harmonizing to effects of perceived hazard are:
Financial hazard which has to make with the loss of money of the clients because of the purchase ( Yelping and Jin, 2010 ; Laroche et al. , 2004 ; Huang et al. , 2006 ) .
Social hazard which refers to what other consumers will believe when they find out about the merchandise bought, in other words, the loss of regard or regard ( Murray and Schlacter, 1990 ) .
Time hazard which refers to the loss of clip in order to do the purchase ( Murray and Schlacter, 1990 ) or put the order ( Sarkar, 2011 ) or the clip spent when a client returns a merchandise because it did non attributed the manner it should ( Mc Corkle, 1990 ) .
Psychological hazard which has to make with the anxiousness, the insecurity and the embarrassment that consumers might experience ( Yelping and Jin, 2010 ; Shin, 2008 ) or the possible loss of self-image ( Murray and Schlacter, 1990 ) .
Performance/product hazard which refers to the loss due to the merchandise failure after the purchase is made ( Laroche et al. , 2004 ; Huang et al. , 2006 ) .
Physical hazard which refers to the perceptual experience of possible negative effects of devouring a given merchandise ( Tsiros and Heilman, 2005 ) .
For the purpose of this survey and farther probe, three types of hazard will be examined which are largely connected with the online shopping and these are, fiscal hazard, public presentation hazard and time/convenience hazard ( Forsythe et al. , 2006 ) .
At this point, it ‘s deserving adverting that the importance of the types of hazard differs across the class of the merchandise or the service ( Mieres et al. , 2006 ; Kaplan et al. , 1974 ) and across the method of shopping ( Laroche et al. , 2004 ) . For illustration, perceived hazard for a necessity is different from the perceived hazard for a luxury merchandise as each of them creates distinguishable emotions for the consumer, either negative or positive ( Chaudhuri, 1998 ) .
One of the chief grounds for the being of perceived hazard is the intangibleness of the merchandise ( Laroche et al. , 2004 ) or services ( Boshoff, 2002 ) and this because a batch of belongingss can be evaluated merely after the purchase is made ( Murray, 1991 ) . The same applies when the purchase takes topographic point through online environments because the clients can non feel the quality of the merchandise before purchasing it ( Kim et al. , 2008 ) .
By and large, clients the more hazard they perceive, the less likely they are to buy ( Lim, 2003 ) . In order to cut down the sum of hazard they are confronting, companies should follow some schemes refering that or utilize information acquisition before taking a purchase determination ( Taylor, 1974 ; Roselius, 1971 ) . The two basic signifiers of schemes are to cut down the inauspicious effects or to heighten the certainty ( Boshoff, 2002 ) . For case, raising trade name consciousness and positive word of oral cavity as a agency of advertisement are ways to cut down perceived hazard because clients are cognizant of the merchandise they buy and the uncertainness felt is less ( Huang et al. , 2006 ) . Another manner is to give warrant money-back in instance of debatable merchandise ( Roselius, 1971 ; Boshoff, 2002 ) . Hence the trouble in cut downing the perceived hazard is that the definition is considered by many research workers misdirecting and ill-defined, every bit good as there is an statement refering the dimensions ( Lim, 2003 ) .
For this ground and merely in instance of shopping via the cyberspace, perceived hazard was examined through another position that of beginning dimension. Harmonizing to this, four new dimensions occurred, the sensed engineering hazard, the sensed seller hazard, the sensed consumer hazard and eventually the perceive merchandise hazard ( Lim, 2003 ) . The overall perceived hazard that a client faces is a mixture of all the different dimensions ( Lim, 2003 ) . The demand to understand how each dimension leads to overall sensed hazard is both theoretical ( for the consumer ) and practical ( for the companies ) ( Laroche et al. , 2004 ) .
HYPOTHESES AND THE RESEARCH MODEL
3.1 E-wom and purchase purpose
It was mentioned earlier, that the influence that e-wom has on consumers is of great importance and worth to be farther noticed. The cyberspace has turned consumers to seek information about what they want, in cyberspace beginnings ( Prendergast et al. , 2010 ) , for illustration in societal web sites as they happen to be suited for the diffusion of e-wom. The active usage of these sites may turn to an addition in the purchase purpose of the users merely because they feel engaged to the SNS ( Prendergast et al. , 2010 ) . Among other things, users feel connected or related with the other members of SNS and they portion sentiments. As a consequence, when they have to take a determination about the purchase of a merchandise, they will seek for recommendations or older posted positions ( Arora, 2012 ) . It can be concluded that purchase purpose is influenced by e-wom.
H1: A correlativity between E-wom in SNS and on-line purchase purpose of hi-tech merchandises is expected.
3.2 Ad and purchase purpose
In order to research the impact of advertisement on SNS, users ‘ motivations of engagement with SNS should be considered ( Taylor et al. , 2011 ) . Vakratsas and Ambler ( 1999 ) indicate that advertisement input has three mediate advertisement effects: affect, knowledge, and experience which so lead to merchandise purchase. Theory every bit good as research point to the fact that positive attitudes towards advertisement may impact trade name or merchandise perceptual experience and finally affect positively the will to buy the merchandise ( Shimp, 1981 ; Mackenzie et al. , 1986 ; Mackenzie and Lutz, 1989 ) .
H2: A correlativity between attitude towards SNS ads and on-line purchase purpose of hi-tech merchandises is expected.
3.3 Perceived value and purchase purpose
As it was mentioned before, perceived value no affair what definition will be used, comprises of monetary value and quality, it is a trade between these two ( Monroe 1990, cited in Chen and Dubinsky, 2003 ) . First, Dodds and Monroe, 1985 ) proved that, by developing the value-intention model harmonizing to which an person is eager to move in a certain manner as a consequence, of the influences of sensed value of behavior effects. After a batch of research, perceived value is considered to be a utile forecaster of purchase purpose ( Zeithaml, 1988 ; Dodds et al. , 1991 ; Chu and Lu, 2007 ) . Traveling a measure farther, today there is sufficient grounds of perceived value holding positive effects on purchase purpose ( Szybillo and Jacoby, 1974 ; Zeithaml, 1988 ; Dodds et al. , 1991 ; Ho 2007 cited in Chi et al. , 2009 ) .
I-3: Value for money of high tech merchandises is positively related to online purchase purpose of hi-tech merchandises.
3.4 Brand acquaintance and purchase purpose
Brand acquaintance harmonizing to Baker et al. , ( 1986 ) is likely to: “ 1 ) Enhance perceptual designation of a trade name, 2 ) increase the chance of inclusion in the elicited set, 3 ) generate positive affect toward the trade name, and 4 ) motivate purchase behaviour ” . For illustration, trade name acquaintance is positively connected with pick due to the fact that a trade name, being more familiar compared to the remainder of the competition, will likely be chosen ( Brady et al. 2008 ) . Furthermore, purchase purpose is influenced, because for person who is familiar with the trade name, less thought is required during the choice procedure and subsequently on, during the purchase procedure, as clients rely on wont so as to move ( Laroche et. al. , 1996 ) . There has been research about trade name acquaintance and how it connects with purchase purpose either immediate ( Dursun et al. , 2011 ) or through some other variables for illustration trust ( Benedikctus et al. , 2010 ) . Based on those the following hypothesis is made.
H4: The higher the trade name acquaintance of hi-tech merchandises the greater the consumer ‘s on-line purchase purpose of such merchandises.
3.5 Perceived benefit and purchase purpose
Both dimensions of sensed value are of import and related to buy purpose with the difference harmonizing to research, that hedonistic value can act upon unplanned shopping experience whereas useful value can non ( Babin et al. , 1994 ) . In add-on, as Wolfinbarger & A ; Gilly, ( 2001 ) stated, both types of the inducements are of import for the anticipation of on-line shopping. As a consequence, consumers harmonizing to their inducements, seek to maximise their benefits when they decide to buy something online and that ‘s the chief ground why purchase purpose is related to perceived benefit ( Forsythe et al. , 2006 ) . Harmonizing to research, perceived benefit non merely is related to buy purpose but is besides positively related ( Forsythe et al. , 2006 ) .
H5: Perceived benefit is positively related to online purchase purpose of hi-tech merchandises.
3.6 Perceived hazard and purchase purpose
Purchase purpose is a portion of the consumer behaviour and it involves hazard because all sorts of actions the consumer do, do some effects that will be treated with some uncertainness ( Bauer, 1960 cited in Chaudhuri 1997 ) . For illustration, shopping online is an action that will do hazard and harmonizing to research, on-line shoppers perceive more hazard than traditional shoppers do ( Bhatnagar and Ghose, 2004 ; Lee and Tan, 2003 ) . It has been noticed that when actions are taken to cut down hazard, the attitude towards purchase purpose is positive ( Keeney, 1999 ) . It can be concluded that, perceived hazard and on-line purchase purpose are negatively connected ( Kwon and Lennon, 2009 ; Forsythe et al. , 2006 ; Heijden and Verhagen, 2004 ) .
H6: Perceived hazard is negatively related to online purchase purpose of hi-tech merchandises.