Perception of everything around us

Perception of everything around us is based upon the fundamental principles of pattern recognition, which involves simplifying complex sensory stimuli into patterns which are easier to interpret and distinguish between. Pattern recognition is acognitive process which involves matching information of a stimulus with information previously stored in our memory. The recognition of patterns allows us to differentiate between a slice of pizza and an apple because of the different parts that make up each object, which are known as geons. A geon is defined as a 2-D or 3-D object such as spheres, blocks and arcs among many more that correspond to the simple components used to makeup a complex object. An example of this is viewing an ice cream cone into its basic geons: a sphere on top of a cone. A geon could be a triangle, rectangle, cube among many others and they can be arranged to form virtually an unlimited number of different types of objects. The concept of breaking down objects into simpler parts for recognition was proposed by Irving Biederman in 1987 through the recognition-by-components (RBC) theory, which was structured around the concepts of bottom-up processing and feature analysis model of pattern recognition. Bottom-up processing involves the process of interpreting sensory information the moment it is presented and then later processing it in the brain to understand what was perceived. Feature analysis model is a type of pattern recognition focused around an analytical approach towards perception by breaking down sensory stimuli into its basic fundamental parts. Similarly, the RBC theory shows that perception is an analytical process which is heavily reliant on the ability to detect patterns allowing us to perceive complex images by breaking them down to a simple arrangement of geons. It is believed that there are 36 geons or less that can be arranged in a variety of different ways in order to create any of the objects we see on a daily basis.  Biederman stated that if speech can be broken down to a number of phonemes (units of sound) then similarly the perception of objects can be broken down to a number of geons. If 55 phonemes are required to create every word in all languages, then similarly 36 geons can be used to create all the different types of objects in the world. When we look at objects we look at two criterias, which includes edges and concavity. Edges allows an individual to maintain the perception of an image regardless of which orientation the object is being viewed from.Concavities of an object refers to the area where two or more edges meet, which allows for the distinguishing of two or more geons on an image.