3 Openness to Experience Openness toexperience has been found to contribute to likelihood of obtaining a leadershipposition, likely due to the ability to entertain new ideas andthink outside the box (Lebowitz, 2016). Openness is also connected touniversalism values, which include promoting peace and tolerance and seeing allpeople as equally deserving of justice and equality (Douglas, Bore, &Munro, 2016).Further, research has linked openness to experience to broadintellectual skills and knowledge, and may tend to increase with age(Schretlen, van der Hulst, Pearlson, & Gordon, 2010). This indicates thatopenness to experience leads to gains in knowledge and skills, and naturallyincreases as a person ages and has more experiences to learn from.
Not only has openness been linked to knowledgeand skills, it was also found to correlate with creativity,originality (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999).2.3.1 Openness and Intelligence Openness/Intellectreflects imagination, creativity, intellectual curiosity, and appreciation ofesthetic experiences. Broadly, Openness/Intellect relates to the ability andinterest in attending to and processing complex stimuli.” (Weisberg,DeYoung and Hirsh, 2011).
Openness can also affect a person’s self-perception of theirown intelligence. Open individuals tend to be seen by themselves as somewhatmore intelligent” (McCrae and Costa, 1987).However, they question whether openness causes increasedintelligence levels or high intellect levels lead to more openness toexperience:“Intelligence may in some degree predispose the individualto openness, or openness may help develop intelligence, but the two seem bestconstrued as separate dimensions of individual differences” (McCrae andCosta,1987).2.
3.2 Openness/Intellect and Creativity The relation of openness/intellect tocreativity transcends domains. This is in contrast to the other four Big Fivepersonality traits, which tend to relate to creativity inconsistently, weakly,or in a domain-dependent manner. For example, a study of the relations betweenthe Big Five and creativity in five domains (general, math/science, drama, interaction,design and arts) found that openness/intellect was the only Big Five trait tocorrelate positively with all domains of creativity (J.C.
Kaufman, 2010).The relationshipbetween the Big Five traits and creativity in the visual arts, literature,crafts, performances, designing, music, and math/science and found asignificant positive correlation between openness/intellect and every domainexcept music(Dollinger 2004).2.4.
Personality Behavior: It is difficult toclassify human behavior (Dickson,1987), there are those who decide that thereare six basic patterns of people, corresponding to six types of values in humanlife, and each person may be seen as close to one or more of these values. Theideal people’s patterns are: “Theoretical / economic / political / aesthetic /social / religious” (Sheikh, 1964). In general, based on the characteristics ofthese patterns, the first three types can be reduced by the logical andpractical rationalism, and the latter three are reduced by the imaginative andemotional aesthetic style. Thus, creators in any field in general, and in areasinvolving the dualism of art and science (primarily architecture), are dividedinto two main types that are: – Speculative type- Systematic type A similar classification can bereached, where the creators are divided into: an intuitive class who depends onintuition or inspiration, and a logical class who depends on the logicaldevelopment of ideas (Issa, 1979). Defining two modes of human personalityconfirms two other divisi