A. Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection that can easily spread and passed from one person to another through droplets in the air. It is usually spread through contact with an infected person who is actively coughing or talking. An infection is caused by the bacteria multiplying inside the body, causing the tissues and organs to be damaged. Without any treatment, half of those people living with active TB infection will die. (Geiter, 2000) According to World Health Organization (2012), “Two hundred children die from TB every day.
Yet it costs less than 3 cents a day to provide therapy that will prevent children from becoming ill with TB and 50 cents a day to provide treatment that will cure the disease. ” There are two forms of TB infection; it is the Active TB and the Latent TB. A person who has Latent TB infection doesn’t show any signs or symptoms of having this that no one could notice. But unfortunately, this Latent TB could worsen and become active any time and can be contagious to other people. Latent TB can be treated with antibiotics to prevent from developing such infection to an active disease.
Active TB disease is next to Latent TB infection, it is the opposite of Latent TB. Because in this stage shows signs or symptoms that includes coughing night sweats and fever. This could also be contagious and should be treated by the doctor as soon as possible. (Geiter, 2000) B. Mycobacteria Mycobacteria are classified as acid-fast bacilli, and have a unique cell wall structure crucial to their survival.
The well-developed cell wall contains a considerable amount of a fatty acid, mycolic acid/ (Knechel, 2009) Infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex remain one of the most important global public health issues: there were 9. million cases of tuberculosis case of tuberculosis in 2009, causing 1. 7 deaths. (Wilson, 2010) C. Signs and symptoms of Tuberculosis Self-reported cough, dyspnoea (difficult respiration), night sweats, haemoptysis (spitting or coughing up of blood) and chest pain. (Wejse, 2008) D. Medication of Tuberculosis Medications are the foundation for treating tuberculosis. But treating this kind of disease takes a lot of time than any other types of bacterial infection. With tuberculosis, a person should take antibiotics for at least six to nine months.
The exact drugs and length of treatment that a person need depends on their age, overall health, possible drug resistance, the forms of TB and the infection’s location in the body. (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2013) E. Primary complex or Childhood Tuberculosis Primary complex or Childhood Tuberculosis is a type of tuberculosis infection that most often occurs in children, that’s why it is also called as “Tuberculosis in children”. The focus of infection is a small area in the lungs and lymph nodes.
People with primary complex do not demonstrate any symptoms. However, they may have cough or swollen lymph nodes. It is caused by infection from the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. “Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is commonly extra pulmonary, disseminated, and severe especially in children under 3 years of age, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate. ” (Avalos, 2012) F. Signs and symptoms of Primary Complex Some children may be detected to have primary complex or simply Childhood TB. The first approach is Tuberculin skin test. A positive tuberculin skin test (TST) reaction has been used as a hallmark of infection with M. tuberculosis, which occurs within 3 to 6 weeks of infection but occasionally up to 3 months after infection and remains positive for life time even after treatment. ”
The other one is the Interferon gamma release assays. Ultrasonography of the chest is helpful to assess pleural fluid collection, but decubitus chest X-ray film may reveal similar information. ” The third way in diagnosing this disease is the Bacteriological diagnosis. A confirmation of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) from any type of body fluid or tissue is the gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. ”(Chen, 2013) G. Medication of Primary Complex a. The three prescribed drugs that doctors recommend as treatment for Primary Complex are Rifampicin (RIF), Isoniazid (INH), and Pyrazinamide (PZA). “Rifampin (also referred to as rifampicin) is a macrocyclic antibiotic with major activity against mycobacteria, commonly used in combination with other agents as therapy of tuberculosis.
Rifampin belongs to a class of medications known as rifamycins and is a synthetic derivative of natural products of the bacterium, S. mediterranei. Rifampin is a complex macrocyclic antibiotic that has activity against several bacteria, but most prominently inhibits growth of M. tuberculosis and several bacteria, but most prominently inhibits growth of M. tuberculosis and several atypical mycobacterial species, probably as a result of inhibition of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of mycobacteria. Rifampin was approved for us in therapy of tuberculosis in the United States in 1971.
Rifampin remains a mainstay of therapy of tuberculosis and atypical mycobacteria infections and is usually used in conjunction with isoniazid and/or pyrazinamide. ” (United States National Library of Medicine, 2012) b. Pyrazinamide (PZA), is an amide derivative of pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid with excellent penetration across biologic membranes and minimal toxicity when used for brief periods, has long been used as a second-line drug for treatment of tuberculosis. It is fully absorbed after an oral dose, and it is distributed all over the body. (Steele, 1988). . Isoniazid (INH) is an antibiotic that is used to treat tuberculosis (TB). It works by killing the bacteria that cause the disease. The exact mechanism of action of isoniazid is unknown, but it is thought to prevent the tuberculosis bacteria from making substances called mycolic acids, which are needed to form the cell walls of the bacteria. It also seems to combine with an enzyme that interferes with the cell metabolism of the bacteria. As a result of the disruption in its metabolism and without a cell wall, the bacteria die. (NetDoctor, 2008) I.
This research aims to discuss the effects of the prescribed drugs namely Rifampicin, Isoniazid, and Pyrazinamide to Primary Complex patients or childhood tuberculosis. The researchers would like to show the statistics of patients undergoing treatment for childhood tuberculosis. In addition, the statistics will show the correlation of the age group, specifically from infancy period to early adulthood, to the effectivity of drugs Rifampicin, Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide. HYPOTHESIS 1: The 3 multi-resistant drugs are more effective in patients with tuberculosis (TB) than primary complex.
HYPOTHESIS 2: Primary complex patients taking the 3 multi-resistant drugs are prone of having high hepatoxicity level as one of its side effects. This study will aim to discuss the effects of the prescribed drug namely rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide to primary complex patients or childhood tuberculosis. Specifically, the objectives of this paper are: 1. To determine the effectiveness of the 3 multi-resistant drug to patients with tuberculosis than primary complex. 2. To determine the hepatoxicity of the liver when taking the 3 multi-resistant drugs.