Principles of accounting and limitations of financial statements Essay


In analysing any company, we want to cognize the sort of assets it owned, the value of the assets and the degree of the uncertainness about those values. Accounting studies makes a reasonably good occupation of sorting the assets owned by a company, a occupation portion of the appraisal of the value of these assets, and a hapless occupation of describing uncertainness about plus values.

In the inquiry province that” conceptually, you might hold thought that all assets should be measured in the same manner, for illustration. At just value or at cost, but this is non the instance as measuring regulations vary depending upon the type of asset” . In this subdivision, we will get down by looking at the basic rules of accounting categorization and measuring of assets and restrictions of fiscal statements to supply relevant information about

In modern times a immense challenge for companies is to be able to mensurate the values of all the assorted types of investing i.e. works, equipment, lands and stock lists. The job arises when different types of investings are measured utilizing the same method. In Model 2010 there is some treatment of measuring but it does no more than place alternate bases of measuring.

Those bases of measuring are historical cost, current cost, realisable value and present value. Each of these accounting measuring systems can ensue in a different step of net income and equity. See the alternate base of measuring identified by the IASB and applies them to mensurating the elements of fiscal statement.

To accomplish the aim of fiscal coverage, measuring should lend to dependably stand foring relevant information about recognised assets, liabilities income and disbursal, and about how expeditiously and efficaciously the entity’s direction and regulating board have discharged their duties to utilize the entity’s resources. In our study we are traveling to take Wesfarmers Ltd. which is one of the biggest company in the Australia. Now we are analyzing their one-year study 2014 to cognize how they use different plus measuring theoretical account to mensurate their plus harmonizing to the AASB criterions.

The definition of just value focuses on assets because they are a major subject of accounting measuring. In add-on, this standard applies to ain equity instruments an entity to mensurate the just value. Fair value is the sum for which an plus could be exchanged between knowing, willing parties in an arm’s length dealing ( i.e. issue monetary value at the measuring day of the month from the position of a market participant that holds the plus owed ) .

Fair value is non the market monetary value merely. There are other markets where monetary values are non included in the definition of just value. Some bing criterions besides utilizing just value less costs to sell for impairment accommodation or value plus dealing costs equal to the initial measuring of assets ( less any dealing costs for Initial measuring of liabilities ) . For some trade goods market have different in-migration, IASB may see utilizing an entity would hold to pay the monetary value to get an plus or received to presume or take duty.

Historical cost-the measuring of historical cost is relevant to the stewardship aim of fiscal coverage but it is likely of less relevant for the decision-usefulness aim of fiscal coverage. However, there is some uncertainty about whether it is more dependable than other steps. The comparative importance attached to the stewardship aim of general purpose fiscal coverage is important to make up one’s minding the rightness of mensurating historical cost. If stewardship is relegated to a comparatively minor function, so the measuring of historical cost is besides likely to be less.

Current cost- the sum of hard currency or hard currency equivalents that would hold to be paid if the same or an tantamount plus were acquired at the terminal of the coverage period. Reliability must be considered in concurrence with relevancy. It is possible that current cost provides a more relevant step of an plus than some other more dependable steps.

Fair value and Market value- This once more is a different signifier of value measuring. In this instance the market value is the monetary value at which a certain plus can be sold. Market value is important because it indicates how good a company can accommodate to altering environment. Therefore if a company wants to sell its assets and can merely retrieve a little part of the cost of the plus so it is bad for the company. It makes the company less adaptable and flexible. Therefore stockholders would prefer to cognize the market value of the assets in the company. Some clip we can besides state Marker value is Fair value but most of the clip Marker value different from market to marker.

Most late, since the acceptance of Australian equivalents to IASB, there are two interconnected criterions covering with plus reappraisals:

  • AASB 116’ Property, Plant and Equipment’ and AASB 136 ‘Impairments of Asset’ .
  • AASB 102 Inventories

AASB 116 required that, points of belongings, works and equipment must be measured utilizing either the cost theoretical account or the reappraisal theoretical account ( p29 ) . Entities must take the footing on which belongings, works and equipment will be measured subsequent to initial acknowledgment.

  • All assets in the same category of belongings, works and equipment must be measured on the same footing ( AASB 116, p29 )
  • A alteration between the cost theoretical account and the reappraisal theoretical account may be made merely if the alteration consequences in fiscal information that is more relevant and dependable. AASB 116 does non supply remark on the ability of an entity to alter the measuring theoretical account of a category of assets.

Paragraphs 31 to 57 plus the appendices to AASB 136 provide farther counsel on gauging the hereafter hard currency and appropriate price reduction rate. In extra consideration is whether the plus has been measured utilizing the reappraisal theoretical account in conformity with the demands of AASB 116 ‘property, Plant and Equipment’ .

If the reappraisal theoretical account is used, AASB 116 required that assets are to be carried at their revalued amount- that is, just value at the day of the month of the reappraisal. Fair value does non take history of the costs of disposal, which means that disposal cost are the lone difference between just value ( required by AASB 116 ) and just value less costs of disposal ( required by AASB 136 ) .

AASB 102 Inventories – The aim of this Standard is to order the accounting intervention for different types of stock lists. A primary issue in accounting for stock lists is the sum of cost to be recognised as an plus and carried frontward until the related grosss are recognised. This Standard provides counsel on the finding of cost and its subsequent acknowledgment as an disbursal, including any write-down to net realisable value. It besides provides counsel on the cost expressions that are used to delegate costs to stock lists. ( ‘AASB 102 Inventories ‘ , 2009 )

We know that stock list is ab initio recorded at original cost ( the cost at which the stock list was acquired ) . However, the historical cost rule is pushed aside if inventory diminutions in value below its original cost, therefore doing damage of its value.

The ground for such a diminution could be among many including obsolescence, damaged stock list, stock list destroyed by natural disaster/fire/earthquake, price-level alterations, etc. If any of these factors occur, so the general regulation is that the historical cost rule is adjusted when the asset’s future public-service corporation ( its ability to bring forth future hard currency flows ) is no longer every bit great as its original cost. (, 2014 )

With everything mentioned above the significance of mensurating different types of assets utilizing different criterion of measuring is rather clear. AASB is the chief organic structure that is instrumental in set uping the regulations and ordinance sing measurements.. At the same clip value of short term assets like stock lists are non depreciated. They are measured at historical cost unless their market realisable value is lower in which instance this is the value that is reported in the fiscal statements. Normally companies prepare different fiscal studies each utilizing a different measuring method to give the stakeholders a more complete position of the company’s public presentation.

“As we mention before our chosen company is Wesfarmers Ltd ( WES ) . Now we are traveling to look at some specific parts of their one-year fiscal study for the twelvemonth 2014. Under “Notes to the fiscal statements” portion 6 ( Inventories ) and 7 ( belongings, works and equipment ) in peculiar are relevant to the treatment.


The company Wesfarmers references it in their study that they value the stock lists at the lower of cost and cyberspace realisable value. Costss incurred in conveying each merchandise to its present location and status is accounted for as follows:

  1. Natural stuffs: Purchase cost on a leaden mean footing.
  2. Manufactured finished goods and work in advancement: Based on cost of Direct

Material and Labour. A proportion of fabricating operating expenses based on normal operating capacity, but excepting adoption costs.

  1. Retail and sweeping ware finished goods: purchase cost on a leaden mean footing.

Therefore they claim that they are in conformity with the accounting criterions set out by AASB 102. The study references that they had to write-down the stock list for a entire worth of $ 19 million dollars so far in the twelvemonth 2014.

Therefore their stock lists have been recorded at cyberspace realisable value. In twelvemonth 2013 the write- down stock list was $ 51 million. Compare to the 2013 the write-down discoverer is less $ 32 million in 2014 but still is so high and it is put immense consequence on fiscal statement for materiality intent. This is important in the creative activity of fiscal studies since without composing off this sum the value of assets would be overstated and therefore it would non be an accurate representation of their fiscal place.

For the interest of the interest of clear uping a point let’s assume Wesfarmers recorded their stock list at original cost and did non compose down their stock list by 19 million. As a consequence the cost would be recorded at historical cost and hence the net income would be overstated but on the impudent side the liquidness risky will be higher. Shareholder and creditors who are willing to put in the company would see this as a hazard to their investing.

Unadjusted monetary value agencies that non merely the historical monetary value is misdirecting for the stakeholders but besides that they do non cognize merely how large the difference between the historical monetary value and realisable value really is. This is a large uncertainness. At the same clip the assets of the company would be overstated which is a positive thing for the company but in world most companies operate with a important sum of liability and hence the liquidness hazard is of all time present and can non be ignored.

Therefore the criterion set out by AASB 102 is perfectly important for any concern and must be followed by Wesfarmers in respects to their inventory.” ( Ltd, 2014 ) ( AASB, 2014 )

Property, Plant and Equipment

“Property, workss and equipment are long term assets and as such they have to be depreciated each accounting period which criterions set out by AASB116.The fiscal study by Wesfarmers references that belongings, works and equipment are valued harmonizing to cost theoretical account such as the cost of the plus, minus depreciation and impairment loss. The cost of the plus besides includes the cost of replacing parts that are eligible for capitalization, and the cost of major reviews.

Harmonizing to the study the entire cost is $ 16018 million and entire sum written off is $ 6066 million and hence the adjusted just value is $ 9952 million. Now if we assume that there is no depreciation and the assets are recorded at the historical cost each twelvemonth so this would significantly exaggerate the value of the assets by $ 6066 million. It would be impossible to sell the assets at the historical monetary value after old ages of usage. Stockholders will cognize and understand this.

They will non desire to purchase portions in a company who would purposefully misdirect the stakeholders merely to do a net income. Even if the balance sheet looks good it still would non alter the fact there is a important liquidness hazard. To avoid this sort of hazard the appraisals of utile lives, residuary value and amortization methods require important direction opinion and are reviewed yearly. These alterations are limited to specific assets and any moderately possible alteration in the estimation is improbable to hold a material impact.

Therefore if Wesfarmers does non deprecate some of their major assets each fiscal twelvemonth and all of a sudden those assets stop working towards the terminal of the utile life, there would be a immense disbursal on the balance sheet all of a sudden. This would make a crisp bead in the net income border a peculiar twelvemonth. But stockholders want to see that a company is traveling steady and these types of immense alterations would raise hard inquiries for the managers. They could ever fall back to originative accounting but the usage of such methods is best kept to a lower limit.

Therefore it is rather clear that the criterions set out by AASB116 should be followed at all times to do a just and true fiscal statement for users.”


“The just value of an plus is a necessary object for every concern organisation ; if these methods would non be applied the fiscal study of company would exaggerate or minimize the net-assets which will do deceptive and falsified revelation to the users. A Conceptual Framework should integrate a measurement aim. That measurement aim should be choosing those measurement options that represent and reflect most reasonably fiscal status and capacity of an entity for determination devising intents. The two Accounting standard measuring theoretical accounts sign of the zodiac and discussed in the Framework we think fiscal capacity would be best reflected by a just value theoretical account.

When the preferable measuring theoretical account is non operable of faithful representation of a fiscal statement so the most relevant replacement theoretical account which is operable faithful of representation could be adopt by the entity. At the terminal we can state, as a one of the big company in Australia Wesfarmers Ltd should take the best plus measuring theoretical account for their each plus which model reasonably represents true value of this peculiar asset.” ( Henderson, 2014 )