Principles of Organization These four broad principles have many variations and considered as exclusive principles of organization which are as under: Chronological Order (order of Time) In chronological order or time order, items, events, or even ideas are arranged in the order in which they occur. This pattern is marked by such transitions as next, then, the following morning, a few hours later, still later, that Wednesday, by noon, when she was seventeen, before the sun rose, that April, and so on.
Chronological order can suit different rhetorical modes or patterns of exposition. It naturally fits in narration, because when we tell a story, we usually follow the order in which events occur. Chronological order applies to process in the same way, because when we describe or explain how something happens or works, we usually follow the order in which the events occur. But chronological order may also apply to example, description, or parts of any other pattern of exposition. Spatial Order Another principle of organization is spatial order.
In this pattern, items are arranged according to their physical position or relationships. In describing a shelf or desk, I might describe items on the left first, then move gradually toward the right. Describing a room, I might start with what I see as I enter the door, then what I see as I step to the middle of the room, and finally the far side. In explaining some political or social problem, I might discuss first the concerns of the East Coast, then those of the Midwest, then those of the West Coast.
Climactic Order (Order of Importance) A third common principle of organization is climactic order or order of importance. In this pattern, items are arranged from least important to most important. Typical transitions would include more important, most difficult, still harder, by far the most expensive, even more damaging, worse yet, and so on. This is a flexible principle of organization, and may guide the organization of all or part of example, comparison & contrast, cause & effect, and description.
A variation of climactic order is called psychological order. This pattern or organization grows from our learning that readers or listeners usually give most attention to what comes at the beginning and the end, and least attention to what is in the middle. In this pattern, then, you decide what is most important and put it at the beginning or the end; next you choose what is second most important and put it at the end or the beginning (whichever remains); the less important or powerful items are then arranged in the middle.
If the order of importance followed 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, with 5 being most important, psychological order might follow the order 4, 3, 1, 2, 5. Still other principles of organization based on emphasis include general-to-specific order specific-to general order most-familiar-to-least-familiar simplest-to-most-complex order of frequency order of familiarity, and so on. Topical Order A fourth broad principle of organization is called topical order, and this is sort of a catchall pattern. It refers to organization that emerges from the topic itself.
For example, a description of a computer might naturally involve the separate components of the central processing unit, the monitor, and the keyboard, while a discussion of a computer purchase might discuss needs, products, vendors, and service. A discussion of a business might explore product, customer, and location, and so on. Topical order, then, simply means an order that arises from the nature of the topic itself. Transitions in this pattern will be a little vague—things like another factor, the second component, in addition, and so on. Principle of Organization* |Associated |Sample Transitions*** | | |Patterns of Development | | | |or Rhetorical Modes** | | |chronological order |narration, process, examples and illustrations, |next; later; the following Tuesday; afterwards; | | |cause & effect |by noon; when she had finally digested the giant| | |burrito; as soon as; in 1998 | |spatial order |description, examples & illustrations |just to the right; a little further on; to the | | | |south of Memphis; a few feet behind; directly on| | | |the bridge of his nose and a centimeter above | | | |his gaping, hairy nostrils; turning left on the | | | |pathway | |climactic order |examples & illustrations, description, |more importantly; best of all; still worse; a | | |comparison & contrast, analogy |more effective approach; even more expensive; | | | |even more painful than passing a kidney stone; | | | |the least wasteful; occasionally, frequently, | | | |regularly | |topical order |classification & division, comparison & |the first element; another key part; a third | | |contrast, analogy, definition, examples & |common principle of organization; Brent also | | |illustrations |objected to Stella’s breath | Matrix Organization The matrix organization is an attempt to combine the advantages of the pure functional structure and the product organizational structure. This form is identically suited for companies, such as construction, that are “project-driven”. The figure below shows a typical Matrix organization. In a matrix organization, each project manager reports directly to the vice president and the general manager.
Since each project represents a potential profit centre, the power and authority used by the project manager come directly from the general manager. Information sharing is mandatory in such an organization, and several people may be required for the same piece of work. However, in general, the project manager has the total responsibility and accountability for the success of the project. The functional departments, on the other hand, have functional responsibility to maintain technical excellence on the project. Each functional unit is headed by a department manager whose prime responsibility is to ensure that a unified technical base is maintained and that all available information can be exchanged for each project. Typical Matrix organization [pic]
The basis for the matrix organization is an endeavor to create synergism through shared responsibility between project and functional management. Following are the advantages of Matrix organizational structure Minimization of project costs, due to sharing of resources. Minimization of conflicts Balance between time, cost and performance Sharing of authority and responsibility Stress distribution between the team Information sharing Disadvantages of the matrix organization Potential for conflict between functional vs. Project groups. Greater administrative overhead Increase in managerial overhead If teams have a lot of independence can be difficult to monitor. Costs can be increased if more managers (ie project managers) are created through the use of project teams.