Two main categories of treating psychological disorders Psychotherapy– is treatment in which a trained professional therapist, uses psychological techniques to help someone overcome psychological difficulties and disorders, resolve problems in living, or bringing about a personal growth. They do this through discussions and interactions with the therapist. Biomedical Therapy– relies on drugs, medications, and medical procedures to improve psychological functioning. Therapies Brochure BY: References: Feldman, R. S. 2010) Psychology and your life Boston: McGraw-Hill Approaches to treating psychological disorders fall into two main categories: Psychologically based and Biologically based therapies. Psychotherapy Psychodynamic TherapyTherapy that seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the conscious, where patients may deal with the problems more effectively. Types of Psychodynamic Therapy Psychoanalysis: the goal is to release hidden unconscious thoughts and feelings in order to reduce their power in controlling behavior.
Therapists use techniques like free association and dream interpretation. Therapists put’s less emphasis on a patient’s past history and childhood, and focuses more on the patients current relationships and specific complaints. Behavior TherapyTreatment approaches that build on the basic processes of learning, such as reinforcement and extinction, and assume that normal and abnormal behavior are both learned. Types of Behavioral Therapy In which gradual exposure to and anxietyproducing stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety.
This type of therapy is best used with people suffering from anxiety disorders. Exposure Treatment: a behavioral treatment for anxiety in which people are confronted, either suddenly or gradually, with a stimulus that they fear. Therapists use the graded exposure technique. This type of therapy is good for anxiety and phobia disorders. Dialectical Behavior: a form of treatment in which the focus is on getting people to accept who they are, regardless of whether it matches their ideal. The focus is to help a person reach an understanding of who they wish to become.
This type of treatment works great for people with depression and a lot of different disorders. Over all behavioral therapy works especially well for eliminating anxiety disorders, treating phobias, and compulsions, establishing control over impulses, and learning ways to control behavior. A person’s belief system in to a more realistic, rational, and logical set of views by challenging dysfunctional beliefs that maintain irrational behavior. Cognitive therapy has been successful in working with a broad range of disorders like anxiety disorders, depression, substance abuse and eating disorders.
Humanistic TherapyTherapy in which the underlying rational is that people have control of their behavior, can make choices about their lives, and are essentially responsible for solving their own problems. Types of Humanistic Therapy Person-Centered Therapy: therapy in which the goal is to reach one’s potential for selfactualization. Therapists use a technique called unconditional positive regard when treating with person-centered therapy. Humanistic therapy can help treat many different disorders like mood disorders, and anxiety disorders.
Interpersonal TherapyShort term therapy that focuses on the context of current social relationships. Interpersonal therapy is especially effective in dealing with people suffering with depression, anxiety, addictions and eating disorders. Cognitive TherapyTreatment approaches that teach people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional cognitions about the world and themselves. Types of Cognitive Therapy Cognitive-behavioral approach: a treatment approach that incorporates basic principles of learning to change the way people think.
Helps treat people suffering from anxiety, and depression. Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy: a form of therapy that attempts to restructure Group TherapyTherapy in which people meet with a therapist to discuss problems with a group. Group therapy works especially well for people suffering from addictions. Family Therapy: an approach that focuses on the family and its dynamics. Aversive conditioning: a form of therapy that reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by pairing an aversive, unpleasant stimulus with undesired behavior.
This technique works best for people with substance abuse problems, such as drug and alcoholism and certain kinds of sexual disorders. Systematic Desensitization: a behavior technique Biomedical Therapy Drug TherapyControl of psychological disorders through the use of drugs. Antipsychotic Drugs: are drugs that temporarily reduce psychotic symptoms such as agitation, hallucination, and delusions. The antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine is used to treat schizophrenia. The new generation of antipsychotic drugs are called atypical antipsychotics. Antipsychotic drugs block the dopamine receptors at the brains synapses.
Atypical antipsychotic drugs affect both the serotonin and dopamine receptors in the brain. Antipsychotic drugs are helpful but once the drug wears off the psychotic symptoms reappear. Antidepressant Drugs: medication that improve a severely depressed patient’s mood and feeling of well being. Antidepressants are also used to treat other disorders such as anxiety, and eating disorders. Antidepressant drugs work by changing the concentration of specific neurotransmitters in the brain. Antidepressant drugs have had a good lasting effect in treating depression increasing the chances of long term recovery.
Mood Stabilizers: drugs used to treat mood disorders that prevent manic episodes of bipolar disorder. An example of a mood stabilizer drug is lithium, a drug used to treat bipolar disorder. Some other drugs used are Depakote, and Tegretol. Mood stabilizer drugs are used as a preventative treatment, meaning they can help block future episodes of manic depression. Antianxiety Drugs: are drugs that reduce the level of anxiety a person experiences, essentially by reducing excitability and increasing feelings of well being. Antianxiety drugs can be used to treat mild to sever forms of anxiety.
The most commonly prescribed antianxiety medication is Xanax. Although antianxiety drugs can be helpful they have a high risk for side effects, such as fatigue, and if taken for long periods of time can lead to dependence. Also if an antianxiety medication is mixed with alcohol it can be potentially lethal. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)- a procedure used in the treatment of sever depression in which an electric current of 70 to 150 volts briefly administered to a patient’s head. In ECT a patient is sedated and typically given a muscle relaxant before the procedure is given.
Although ECT can be helpful there are many side effects following the procedure such as, disorientation, confusion and sometimes memory loss that can last for months. It may also cause permanent brain damage. Electroconvulsive Therapy often does not produce long term improvement. ECT tends to only be used when other treatments have been ineffective. An alternative to ECT is Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS provides a precise magnetic pulse in a specific area of the brain. TMS has been proven to be an effective treatment in relieving the symptoms of depression.