Question and religious conflicts between the Shia and

Question 1 – In what way can this article be criticised? This article is clearly biased as the concept of othering applies to all human beings, not just the so-called ‘Western World’. According to Social Psychology, it is in our instincts to automatically make categorical distinctions between both group members and individuals, in order to sustain our own survival and intelligence. Today, a lot of the conflicts which arise are group-based, however there are several other factors which play a part, such as: political histories or geographical conflicts which have occured in the past, and then once again revived over time. The concept applies to numerous cultures and countries that Gebelhoff mentions. F.ex. when the Iraqi prime minister Nouri al-Maliki evidently took sides with the Shia majority when he refused to establish an inclusive national government, even when his country was frayed by internal ethnocentric and religious conflicts between the Shia and Sunni. The term othering is automatically directed to racism and ethnocentrism; however, there are endless problems some face daily which are not recognised. Issues of  Social, socio economic, political, religious and gender background such as f.ex. “Islamophobia” which could be categorized as racism, thought religion is not a racial category. Likewise are the implementations of lesbian and anti gay legislations, as well as the countless different gender norms which are also considered to be statements of othering. As Simone de Beauvoir discussed in her books, Women are the Other of Man, as masculinity is considered to be the universal norm because of social constructs throughout history.Question 2 – In what way can the arguments put forward to be further supported?Even though it is in our ancestral blood to make categorical distinctions, the substance and reasoning behind these remarks (ethnicity, religion, social status etc) are a social construct which is caused by our ability to be easily influenced by our surroundings; thus making it easier to be  brainwashed by prejudices, stereotypes and misconceptions of the truth. The “group position theory” was developed in the late 1950’s where it describes how we are inadvertently lean towards collective social inclinations rather than act upon individual interactions and will. Through talks, literature, news accounts, sermons etc. where personal opinions and perspectives are expressed can grow and spread the more information circulates between individuals. This creates a collective view of a certain subordinate group. An example is when Republican  President Donald Trump instigated a plan to build a wall alongside the United States-Mexican border in order to keep out so-called “rapists and criminals.” As well as implement a ban on Syrian refugees and Muslim immigrants who originate from certain countries. As it is clear that he is shifting the focus and creating scapegoats of Muslims and Syrians. This is how it becomes normalised world-wide to associate Islam with “terrorism” and “extremism.”This why he can Assimilate society, which is a method to try and diminish the differences which define a certain group, by f.ex. teaching the dominant language to an inferior group, or converting a minority to the dominant religion. This was a way for f.ex. American society to try and integrate immigrants on their own terms, which is how several nationalities managed to become “white” and therefore accepted into society.