“Race” (Curtin, 1972) (Klein & Vin 2007).Not

“Race” is a concept and idea to categorize human into groups depending on their physical traits. Though the “race” is commonly defined regarding biological traits, biologists, physical anthropologists, and geneticists long ago came to a common understanding that race is not a “scientific” concept as profound evidence of our biological differences (Back, 2000).

The history of race and racism is almost as old as human civilization. In ancient Europe, even female people was denoted as a different race. Though in the Roman empire, slaves were collected from almost all races and they also have an opportunity to upgrade themselves into general civilians. From the eighth century, the situation was changed. Ancient people are aware of the differences between human color and different physical texture of different people.

But their main point of interest was a difference in culture, religion, and language and they define race according to their culture, religion, and language as well as a regional basis, not on physical traits (Lentin, 2004) (Berghe, 1967). The concept of racism was mainly developed at the time of colonization when the Europeans came into contact with different countries of the different region. Generally, Europeans were physically distinct from the natives of other regions. Again as they were advanced in firepower and other modern technology of that time, they became concurred in a short run, and they began to discriminate themselves from the natives. In the old time, especially before colonization, consumers became native over time, and they were mixed up with local people, but European settlement was different. They took the indigenous people as a prise, and in many cases, they convert them to slaves.

Again as in most of the cases, they had no intention to spend the rest of their life in a foreign land, they bring their administrative workforce with them. Native people were only used for physical labor and other physical activities and in most of the time, they were forced to do so. On that point, the concept of racism or rase, as we know nowadays was developed (Barkan, 1992) (Curtin, 1972) (Klein & Vin 2007).Not long ago, racism was the only determinant to identify a person’s position in the society, whether a person is a master or a slave.

In most of the cases, a person who was born as a slave was becoming slave for his lifelong and was treated as a different race. Racism also caused some mass destruction, as the second world war was based on racism and Jewish holocaust was a destructive output of this concept (Essed, 1991).   Race and racism The core of the racism concept is to separate people depending on some specific physical traits like hair style, skin color, etc., and estimated that those who have same physical traits are similar in intelligence, temperament, physical prowess, and sexuality.In other word, race is the process of dividing people into different groups based on their visible physical traites and this visible differences are the output of their genetical differences. People of a perticular race holds similar physical specialities on which they are seperated.Transformation of Racism ConceptWhen Europeans first arrived in the North America early in 1500s, Native Americans inherited that land on that time. A continuous conflict took place between the Europeans and Native Americans over centuries, and by 1600s, the Europeans forced the Natives and set their colonies.

They also managed their servitude based on different deeds.(Thornton, 1987).But the situation was changed at the time of Bacon’s Rebellion. Africans or the Blacks had no opportunity for freedom and they was forced to accept their lifelong slavery. Moreover this slavery continues for generations. Slaves children was forced to be slave too and this was a permanent ongoing process.

Around 1770s, English colonies denied to stay under the British Empire and they involved into rebellion. Though the main theme of this rebellion is to get freedom, they denied the freedom of the Native Americans as well as the Africans (Brown, 2012). Around 1758, Carolus Linnaeus, a famous European scientist,  published a classification system on which, humans were able to differentiate and classified. Thomas Jefferson, who helped to draft the Declaration of Independence and was a Precedent too, adopted the idea of social and biological hierarchy. He was also an influential promoter of the classification, on which “Black” was inferior and “White” was superior. He was also involved with writing mentioning the superiority of “Whites” over “Blacks” and he also mentioned that, “Whites” were not only superior in physical form but also in mental structure. Many scientists was influenced by his ideas and developed their theories based on those ideas.

(McKenna & Bell, 1997).By 18th and 19th centuries, many scientists was influenced by Enlightenment philosophers and a systematic approach was developed on categorize things, both nature and human as well. —–