Rachelscalls his theory “Morality Without Hubris” and gives it two dimensions, wherethe first one explains that morality is a function of reason and it has to beconsistent. The second one is a combination of consequentialism (utilitarianism),non-consequentialism (Kantian) and virtue of ethics. In this chapter, Rachels basically characterizes a satisfactory moral theory.He says that it cannot exaggerate the role of a human being in the world, itencourages social living and cooperation between us, it makes space for careand relationships we have with our loved ones, it recognizes that some peopleneed to be treated differently according to their own behavior and/ordecisions, it values different admirable motives and it combines reason and impartiality.Rachels also talks about human welfare and according to him, it shouldserve as a moral standard for any satisfactory moral theory. One of thestrategies is utilitarianism, where the goal is to maximize human welfare.
Thistheory also makes room for people to pursue their goals, interests, andrelationships that are specific and personal. It can include virtues, socialroles, duties, concerns, etc. all in order to maximize human welfare. According to Rachels, everyone (people in all places and in all times)should be included in the community ofmoral concern. He also includes the possibility that we include other animalsin our community of moral concern.
This reading was interesting to me because it talks about differentstuff that we discussed in class in one reading. I really like how Rachelsdescribed the characteristics of a satisfactory moral theory because I agreewith most part of them. One thing that I agree is that we could include as apossibility to include animals in our community of moral concern, but I meanall animals, not only pets. Two questions that I would add to the reading forthe class would be: Is multiple-strategies utilitarianism extremely asatisfactory moral theory? Why is human welfare central to any other moraltheory?