Radio-frequency Identification (RFID) Technology Essay

  1. Radio-frequency designation ( RFID ) engineering
  2. Vivek Sood

SID: 17907343

  1. School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematicss
  2. University of Western Sydney, Parramatta, New South Wales, Australia


Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID ) is a wireless acknowledgment technique for automatically identifying objects. This engineering has achieved progressive promotion over the past few decennaries and due to its clear advantages is now being identified as a manner of attractive informations direction process over manual systems or saloon codifications. With addition promotions and use comes concern over privateness and protection. Apart from understanding the background of the principals of this engineering the chief purpose of this instance analyze study is to analyze the engineering behind RFID, its design/architecture, protocols, applications/advantages in several Fieldss, restriction of usage, proficient and security issues and get the better ofing these issues.


RFID can be viewed upon as one of the most relentless computer science engineerings which has gained a batch of push since 1970s. RFID can be considered similar to exclude cryptography in its simplest signifiers. It is a engineering which is suited to utilize, user friendly and good suited for rough environments. It over comes the advantages of other engineerings like saloon codifications. The most of import characteristic of RFID engineering is its ability to be provides as a read-only or read/write and riddance of contact i.e. line-of-sight to run. The usage of RFID ways back to the 2nd universe war. RFID was foremost used during the Second World War in Identification Friend or Foe systems onboard military aircraft.In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy investigated the technology’s potency to safeguard stuffs at atomic arms sites. ( JUELS 2004 )

Radio Frequency Identification systems have emerged as a promising engineering supplying a cost effectual of linking objects to a web. Due to its ability to of supplying accurate and existent clip informations, RFID is a fleetly lifting engineering that is expected to take to great advancement in Fieldss every bit diverse as stock list direction, supply concatenation direction, entree control, wellness attention, and animate being agriculture, robotics etc. It is non new to happen RFID tickets in recognition cards, tracking of wild life species and automatic toll payment devices. With so many huge chances for enhanced applications comes assorted security challenges. There are security and privateness concerns with this engineering which fall loosely into the undermentioned countries: location privateness, client information ; insecure runing environments ; denial of service, burlesquing and proficient onslaughts ( L.GARFINKEL 2005 )

An RFID system is fundamentally comprises of three parts. 1 ) A ticket – which carries informations needed to acknowledge the object 2 ) an RFID reader which gathers the information from the tickets and a database which shops information related to tickets. An RFID ticket which forms the cardinal portion of the RFID engineering comprises of an integrated circuit and an aerial for directing and having signals


In generall, RFID technologies focal point are the RFID ticket. As said earlier a complete RFID system comprises of RFID tickets, readers and informations base. The cardinal construct behind RFID systems is that objects are marked with tickets. Transponders contained within the tickets when read by RFID readers emit clear monosodium glutamate. A alone designation figure is contained by tickets. When a RFID reader reads the tickets it retrieve information about the alone no from the database. Some of the tickets besides have writable memory storage. In this storage infinite they store information which can be read by different RFID readers. This how an object with RFID ticket can be tracked.

Fig 1: RFID Working

3.1 System Architecture

3.1.1 RFID Tags

RFID tickets can be classified into two types: Active and inactive tickets. The basic difference between active and inactive ticket is based on their supply of power. Active tags an onboard battery while inactive tickets get power from the RFID readers. Passive addition power from the signal of RFID reader. There is besides a 3rd type of tickets. A 3rd type of tagis a semi-passive ticket that is powered by both an internal battery and the electromagnetic moving ridges sent out by the reader.Semi-passive tickets can be used to supervise environmental variables such as the temperature of frozen nutrient or the sum of humidness in a container. ( Fifty-one 2006 )

RFID Tags are available as chip-based or chipless. A micro chip that is used to hive away information and a aerial utile for communicating are contained by bit based tickets. on the other manus, chipless tickets do non consit of a bit and are used as anti larceny devices. Chip Based devices can be farther categorized into three. 1 ) read merely, 2 ) wtite once/read many times and 3 ) read –write. Datas on read only-tags can non be changed unless the bit is electronically reprogrammed and they are frequently used to track assets that will hold a alone ID over their life-time. A readwrite ticket will let alterations to the stored informations and they are used to track points through the supply concatenation ( L.GARFINKEL 2005 )

3.1.2 Readers

Readers release electromagnetic moving ridges which cross examine the tickets till a response is sent by the tickets. the readers play an of import function particularly when they interoggate with inactive and semi passive tickets as the readers besides provide energy to these tickets to direct the informations back to the readers. Similar to label, readers besides come in several types. The can be stationary like the mouted readers and integrated into hand-held computing machines called the handheld readers. Mounted readers can be used for larger reading anges while hand-held readers provide portability.

As show below, readers contain an aerial for conveying signals and a processor for decrypting them. The reader receives instructions and information from the aerial. Some of the readers today can at the same time read 50 to 2500 tickets per second.

FIG 2: RFID TAG and Reader Flow

3.2 Frequencies and Reading scope

Frequency allotments are governed by authorities organic structures. Across the Earth, Different RFID applications are allocated with different frequences. However standardization of these frequences is in advancement.

Below Table 1 describes the categorization of four frequence sets used in RFID tickets, their frequences, and their reading ranges.

Table 1:Frequency Categorizations

Frequency Categorization

Frequency Band ( Hz )

Reading Scope

Low Frequency

125 kilohertz

0.3 metres

High Frequency

13.56 MHz

1 metre

Ultra High Frequency

( UHF )

433 MHZ – 2.45 GHz

1-3 metres



2.45 GHz – 300 GHz

2+ metres

The most often used tickets are as low categorized as low frequence as they are more merely clear through equipments and are non as way medium as higher frequence tickets. By and large talking, higher frequences have greater reading scopes and are less sensitive to resound than the lower frequence tickets.

Conversely, RFID tags with microwave frequence do hold greater read scopes and higher reading velocities than lower frequence tickets, but they tend to be line of sight dependant, orientation sensitive, and necessitate more power. ( Shoewu 2006 )

JUELS, A 2004, ‘RFID Privacy: An Overview of Problems and Proposed Solutions ‘ , IEEE Intelligent systems, pp. 34-46.

L.GARFINKEL, S 2005, ‘RFID Privacy: An Overview of Problems and Proposed Solutions ‘ , pp. 34-43.

Li, S 2006, ‘Radio frequence designation engineering: applications, proficient challenges and schemes ‘ , vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 193-202.

Shoewu, O 2006, ‘Radio Frequency Identification Technology: Development, Application, and Security Issues. ‘ , The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 144-52.