Research manual Essay

Definition / meaning of terms used :Pre-experimentalThey are research designs that are marked by characteristics of a lack of random selection and assignment. It would be any set of observations made on a behavior.

True-experimentalA true experimental design is one in which the researcher manipulates the independent variable (or variables) to observe its effect on some behavior or cognitive process (the dependent variable) while using random assignment of participants to groups in order to control external factors from influencing the results. Quasi-experimentalThis is one type of experimental design that is very similar to the True Experimental Design with one key difference. For an experimental design to be classified as a True Experimental Design, it must meet 2 criteria:1.      random assignment of participants to groups2.       manipulation of an internal variableA Quasi- Experimental Design is exactly the same except that there is no random assignment of participants to groups. Non- experimental researchNon-experimental research involves observing and measuring things as they are.

Non-experimental research is used to provide solutions to problems. Non-experimental research can add to what we know by common sense because we can test our beliefs to see how true they are.Single-subject designAlso referred to as single-case experimental design. They are designs that can be applied when the sample size is one or when a number of individuals are considered as one group. These designs are typically used to study the behavioral change an individual exhibits as a result of some treatment.

Descriptive research designsDescriptive research design is a scientific method which involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way. Many scientific disciplines, especially social science and psychology, use this method to obtain a general overview of the subject.Observational study survey research developmental designSince distortion can be a serious limitation to survey research, scientists may choose to observe subject’s behavior directly through observational research. Observational research reduces the possibility of subjects giving misleading accounts of their experiences, not taking the study seriously, being unable to remember details, or feeling too embarrassed to disclose everything that happened.ChecklistA list of actionable things to do.

Rating scaleRating scale presents the rater with a list of features or attributes from which the rater is expected to select those which the rater believes and applies to the subject in question. Rating scale instruments are used in psychological research primarily to assess qualities for which no objective evidence is found.Co-relational ResearchCo-relational research method is a statistical measure of a relationship between two or more variables (factors that change). It gives an indication of how one variable may predict another. Variables may include characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, or events.

The goal of co-relational research is to determine whether or not a relationship exists between two variables, and if a relationship does exist, the number of commonalities in that relationship.Ex-post FactorIt is used to refer to an experiment in which the researcher, rather than creating the treatment- examines the effect of a naturally occurring treatment after it has occurred. In other words it is a study that attempts to discover the pre-existing causal conditions between groups.

Factorial designIs a tool that can be used to design experiments. An experiment using factorial design allows one to examine simultaneously the effects of multiple independent variables and their degree of interaction.Meta-analysisA meta-analysis summarizes data from individual studies that concern a specific research question.                                                           REFERENCES