Research SettingThe study will consist of participants from the Regional FertilityCentre (RFC) in Belfast. The RFC isregulated by the HFEA in agreement to the Human Fertilisation and EmbryologyAct. This Centre has been established for morethan 30 years.
Data Collection To fulfil the qualitative research study the researcher will intend tocollect data in a way that gives the participant support and comfort forexploring their personal experiences (Katz 2012). Theresearcher will collect the participant’s information through in-depth semistructured interviews. In-depth,semi-structured interviews are verbal interchanges where one person, theinterviewer, attempts to elicit information from another person by askingquestions (Newell andBurnard 2011). This collectionmethod also allows for the ability to measure attitudes, probe feelings, posefollow up questions and gather internal meanings through the use and ability ofcommunication skills (Munhall2012). With semi structuredinterviews the phenomenon studied must be thought through (Speziale et al. 2011). In this case the researcher has decided touse open ended questions allowing the participants to answer freely andelaborate allowing for answers to be in detail (Speziale et al. 2011).
Open ended questions are unstructuredquestions that begin with a how, what, when, where, and why and the respondent answers in their own words (Gerrishand Lacey 2010). Open endedquestions are advantageous in exploratory research where statistical validity is not a prime objective (Parahoo2014; Grove et al. 2012). It alsoreveals rich details with unanticipated findings and permits adequate answersto complex issues (Groveet al. 2012). The researcher will use 12open-ended questions which are designed and developed by the researcher for thesolitary purpose of the study (see appendix interview questions). Each question will be allocated approximately10 minutes for answering, totalling 120 minutes – 2 hours for each interview.
This approximates a guide for the interviewsession but the participants’ answers will guide the time frame of theinterview (Speziale et al.2011). An interview schedule (See appendix), will devise a plan toconcentrate the interviewer on the purposed questions and thus will shift thefocus if the answers are not in line with the objectives of the research (Speziale et al. 2011).
Researchers have to be vigilant whenit comes to pursuing the interviewee to make sure they are not considered toimpact the answers, hence the important of sticking to the interview schedule(Jolleson 2013). A computer mic will beused to audio record the interviews with authorisation from the respondents inorder to create a precise interpretation of the sessions (Jolleson 2013). The recording will help the researcher to concentrate, listen and respondbetter rather than note taking which can increaserisk of the researcher being more subjective when writing (Seidman 2013). Seidman (2013) also identifies thatqualitative research recordings give a more holistic picture and during the analysisprocess the researcher will be able to go back over material in more detail. The participants will also have the right towithdraw from the interview sessions/study and dismiss the interview at anygiven time. To ensure the participantsfeel comfortable and to reinforce an anonymous study the interviewees will beinterviewed in a private room within a local hotel.
This will take patients away from theclinical environment and allow for a more accurate answer. The cost of thiswill be considered within the financial costs section of this proposal. Navigating interviews in a comfortableenvironment encourages a sense of safety also preserves discretion andconfidentiality (Newelland Burnard 2011). Concurringly Parahoo (2014) illuminates that when data iscollected in a natural environment, researchers often take into considerationother influences such as cultural that can impact experiences. A reflectionperiod will be scheduled for the interviewer. Thiswill form mental processing for the interviewer like a form of thinking thatwill fulfil rigour within the questioning period (Commer 2016). SamplingFowler (2013) specifies that researchers usesamples rather than populations for reasons of efficiency and costeffectiveness.
It would be impossible, and generally impractical, to conduct astudy on the entire population (Fowler 2013). Therefore, the researcher hasemployed sampling strategies that have been designed to select a subset of thepopulation to represent that entire population (Fowler 2013; Newell and Burnard2011). There are many types of samplingstrategies such as probability sampling and non-probability sampling (Parahoo2014; Fowler 2013; Newell and Burnard 2011). Non-probability sampling is themost popular method for qualitative research and is also popular for apredefined group. The researcher willuse purposive sampling. The main goal ofthis is to focus on particular characteristics of a population that are ofinterest, which will best enable the researcher to answer the studies question (Newelland Burnard 2011). In addition Parahoo(2014) suggests that qualitative researchers should use a small selective samples,because of the in depth semi-structured interviews associated, creating awealth of data from the small numbers. The researcher intends to acquire apurposive sample that will have some exclusion and inclusion criteriarequirements (see below).
Inclusion criteria has a relationship with theresearch and benefits the results, however exclusion criteria has nocorrelation with the study or with the findings. Inclusion: • Minimumof (N=12) participants and maximum of (N=16) • Mixtureof failed and successful treatment Exclusion: • Patientswho have children • Patientsactive in treatment After the literature review the researcherhas carefully considered that these studies reached data saturation at (N=14)participants therefore the researcher will propose (N=12) participants for thesample size to achieve a rich perspective of the fertility patients experience.Holloway and Wheeler (2013) highlight that saturation of data is whenresearchers reach a point in their analysis of data when sampling more datawill not lead to any more information.
The suggested sample size will allow theethical committee to grant (N=12) participants allowing for participants towithdraw from the study leaving adequate participants for prosperous results(Holloway and Wheeler 2013). Thus (N=4) participants could leave and thisleaves the researcher with data saturation of (N=8) patients.