Researchers a small number of studies at this

Researchers are all the time more
interested that entrepreneurship as a way to eradicate youth unemployment and
to catch better financial stability at senior ages. However, only a small
number of studies at this moment have examined the relationship between age and
entrepreneurial activity. Former research explained the general negative contact
of age on entrepreneurship, but no research has been completed on positive contact
of age over entrepreneurship activities using cross-sectional study.  We can develop and test our model in ages
between (20 to 80) years and our objective is to test, that with course of time
perceived opportunities and skills of an entrepreneur improved which in
sequence increase entrepreneurship activities in the textile industry. Here
perceived opportunities, and skills, contribute as a mediating role between age
and entrepreneurship activities. This eventually could help to reduce
unemployment, and to get better financial stability in that sector.

Research background

What is
entrepreneurship”? Basically entrepreneurship is defined as the finding,
assessment and utilization of new opportunities, new sources to create new
ideas and products ”.(Shane and Venkataraman,
2000).  ”In usually, some
previous studies recommended the negative contact of age our entrepreneurship
as referred by” (levesque and minniti 2006).  Moreover, this negative connection is
still under discussion due to age allied characteristics.

Here we will add to
this text using lifespan perspective theory, to examine the positive contact of
age over entrepreneurship activities in textile industries via perceived
opportunities and perceived skills as mediating variables; and our population
is limited to textile industries.

in 1987 ) ”says that, actually improvement is process of all-time  gaining and loosing in mental characteristics
in life,  As we know some abilities turn
down with passage of age e.g. physical muscle and some abilities, boost up
(e.g. acquaintance, intelligence, and skills). 
Moreover, at higher ages people mount up with human resources which
balance for decline in physical strength.

in 1987) says that, awareness of having some skills link with self efficiency which
further increase a confidence of capable of doing tasks effectively,,. Further,
individual’s evaluation on the own capital and opportunity also builds self
efficiency (Aizen.1987 and Gist and
Mitchell, 1992). This self efficiency
develops a belief of goal attainment which in sequence play rule to increase of
intentions and actions to reach that goal referred as (Boyed and vozikis, 1994). Desire to be excellent
entrepreneur is based on entrepreneurship self efficiency (Zhao et al., 2005). So, this self efficiency
develop if you have skills, and perceived opportunities,

Research question

How the age positively
relate with entrepreneurship activities? Or

How the entrepreneurship activities increase the perceived opportunities
and perceived skills with passage of age?


Definition of key concept

Entrepreneurial activity increases perceived opportunities (i.e. because people are in the entrepreneurial state of mentality one time if they are engaged in entrepreneurship and as a result persistently perceived new opportunities) and perceived skills (i.e. because managing of company and performing the frequent responsibilities over long time create self efficiency perceptions). As with age intelligence and leadership abilities enhance according to theories of leadership development literature and lifespan psychology literature and entrepreneurship



In this research our point
is to test that, with age, skills and perceived opportunities of entrepreneur
increase which in sequence give positive contact on entrepreneurship activities
( as we know if entrepreneurship actions increases it would increase business
,or expansion of business which further would help to lessen the unemployment
in society and recover the financial stability)



1st hypotheses:

Age relate positively to
entrepreneurship activities

2nd hypotheses

Perceived opportunities
relate positively to entrepreneurship activities

3rd hypothesis

Age relates positively
to entrepreneurship activities

4th hypothesesPositive relationship between age and entrepreneurship is mediated by perceived opportunities, and perceived skills,    


We Chi-square test
would use to check that whether particular allocation is consistence with given
data or not. To test our hypothesis and to determine that, whether different samples,
come from the population are with equal means or not for that purpose we will
use ANOVA analysis. To check the nature and strength of relationship we will build
up a estimating equation, of variables, and would apply, regression, and correlation
analysis, (Y= a +bX) equation of straight line, for 2 variables,

First we would monitor
the direct contact of a age on entrepreneurial activity while including gender
as a control variable. In the second, we would put in the two mediator
variables to check mediation result. To further examine the mediation result we
would also check full mediation, partial mediation, whether the age on
entrepreneurial activity is insignificant or significant after including the
mediators to the model.

 we will develop a representative sample of
entrepreneur ages between (20 to 80) who are involved in textile business for
less than 10 years (x<10), another, sample in which entrepreneurs are involved In textile business, for (1030 years). Using, ANOVA analysis, we will compare the means of different


My first choice is to gather
data through personal visits or questionnaire and with the help company’s
coordination including small and medium enterprises to larger for research
purpose we can collect primary data. Otherwise we could also use data of AGM,
Global entrepreneurship monitor which is most recent publically available data,
which reflect development in entrepreneurship, in all industries including
textile, with more than 100 plus countries including Japan and Pakistan. The
GEM data is often used in educational research, as it provides a main database
for globally relative entrepreneurship. (Bergmann, H. Mueller, S., and Schrettle,
T. (2014).).”

Expected results

After study predictable
result could be, number of entrepreneurs who are in textile business for less
than 10 years could have less, entrepreneurship activities, as skills and
perceived opportunities are less as compared to the sample of, age (10