Responsible for SmokingWorks CitedFisher, Edwin B. Jr., Edward Lichtenstein and Debra Haire-Joshu.
“Multiple Determinants of Tobacco Use and Cessation.” Nicotine Addiction: Principles and Management. C. Tracy Orleans and John Slade (eds). New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.Smoking is a prevalent habit in the United States.
Smoking is a form of nicotine addiction because of easy acquisition of the substance and the high level of advertisement utilized in marketing the product. This article discussed the various determinants of tobacco use and cessation. Smoking and nicotine addiction is comprised of multiple determinants that show the level of addictiveness of a person.This article greatly helped in my research paper in examining the various manifestations of smoking and nicotine addiction by inferring on the various determinants discussed. It also evaluates the biological, psychological and social determinants of the subject which expound the main claim of the research work that individuals are responsible for the prevalence of smoking. This article also supports the reasons why people are becoming addicted to the substance.
Lancaster, Tim, Lindsay Stead, Chris Silagy and Amanda Sowden. “Effectiveness of Interventions to Help People Stop Smoking: Findings from the Cochrane Library.” British Medical Journal 321 (2000): 355-358.The article reviews the effectiveness of the various interventions employed in the society to prevent people from smoking. The article relayed the methods and techniques and evaluates these methods in such a way to measure their effectiveness in discouraging people from smoking.
Attempts to stop the smokers are the ways to prevent the increasing mortality rate related to smoking.This literature is a significant addition to the research paper as it studies the effectiveness of the different interventions used in preventing people to engage in smoking. There are ad campaigns of the smoking-related illnesses to inform and to discourage people but there is no significant decrease on the number of smokers which will support my reason that various methods and techniques should be applied to reduce the number of smokers.Office of the US Surgeon General. “The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.” U.
S. Department of Health and Human Services. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health, 2004.The report is a comprehensive literature of the adverse effects of smoking on human health. The 960-page report contains the different illnesses that can be acquired through smoking which are separated in chapters with general headings like cancer, cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases. It also discussed the benefits derived in the reduction of smokers.
This report strengthens the research paper in discouraging the smokers. Various smoking-related illnesses can be derived from smoking. It is dangerous not only to the health of the smoker but also to the people exposed to the secondhand smoke.
An intensive campaign spreading this knowledge will discourage people to smoke.Sackey, Joyce A. and Stephen I. Rennard. “Patient Information: Smoking Cessation.” UpToDate for Patients. 10 February 2009. 8 April 2009 <http://www.
uptodateol.com/patients/content/topic.do?topicKey=~zbQz5uZ7uWwMb>.This article discussed the benefits derived from smoking cessation or reduction of smoking. It examines the major health benefits of men and women of all ages. The article mostly focuses on the health benefits that can be achieved by persons when they stop smoking.
Smoking cessation is important, especially to those who do not smoke since they are being exposed to the detrimental secondhand smoke.The article supports and strengthens the research paper as it greatly reinforces the claim that people should stop smoking because it is dangerous to their health. The health benefits derived in smoking cessation will encourage the smokers to stop smoking and save the non-smokers as well for not being exposed to secondhand smoke.Tibbs, Tiffany L. and Debra Haire-Joschu. “Avoiding High-Risk Behaviors: Smoking Prevention and Cessation in Diabetes Care.” Diabetes Spectrum 15 (2002): 164-169.The article discussed smoking along with high-risk behaviors can result to devastating health consequences for patients with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer.
The article also discussed the prevention and treatment and effective strategies implemented to treat the medical condition.This article supports the research paper as it explores on another aspect of health which is the high-risk behaviors which worsen the medical condition of the smoker. If a smoker manifests high-risk behavior, it will result to worse health consequences. Prevention and treatment is essential in encouraging smoking cessation to smokers.Wakefield, Melanie, Kim McLeod and Katherine Clegg Smith. “Individual versus Corporate Responsibility for Smoking-Related Illness: Australian Press Coverage of the Rolah McCabe Trial.” Health Promotion International 8 (December 2003): 297-305.
The paper discussed the comprehensive analysis of the Australian newspapers reporting on the outcome of the controversial trial of Rolah McCabe versus the British American Tobacco Australasia (BATA). The article discussed the 79 instances of eight tobacco-related frames identified during the course of the commentaries of the Australian national or capital city newspapers. The significant finding of the article stated that 46 percent of the frames identified are negative for tobacco control. The common in this percentage is the conception of smokers in exerting free will.This article greatly supports the main claim that is the individual’s decision to smoke. The conception of free will exerted by the person in the frames discussed in the article strengthens the thesis of the paper regarding the personal decision of the person to smoke and the absence of coercion from external sources.