Revenue and States Savory Snacks Essay

2009 Case Notes Prepared by: Dr. Mernoush Banton Case Author: John & Sherry Ross A. Case Abstract Pepsi (www. pepsico. com) is a comprehensive strategic management case that includes the company’s calendar December 31, 2008 financial statements, competitor information and more. The case time setting is the year 2009. Sufficient internal and external data are provided to enable students to evaluate current strategies and recommend a three-year strategic plan for the company. Headquartered in Purchase in the U. S. state of New York, PepsiCo is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under ticker symbol PEP.

B. Vision Statement (Actual) “PepsiCo’s responsibility is to continually improve all aspects of the world in which we operate – environment, social, economic – creating a better tomorrow than today. Our vision is put into action through programs and a focus on environmental stewardship, activities to benefit society, and a commitment to build shareholder value by making PepsiCo a truly sustainable company. ” Vision Statement (Proposed) To become the leading producer and marketer of food and beverage products in the world. C.

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Mission Statement (Actual) “Our mission is to be the world’s premier consumer products company focused on convenient foods and beverages. We seek to produce financial rewards to investors as we provide opportunities for growth and enrichment to our employees, our business partners and the communities in which we operate. And in everything we do, we strive for honesty, fairness and integrity. ” Mission Statement (Proposed) To be the world’s (3) premier consumer products company focused on convenient foods and beverages (2).

We strive for healthy financial rewards to investors (5) as we provide opportunities for growth and enrichment to our employees (9), business partners, and the communities (8) in which we operate. We have outstanding technological (4) and marketing (7) systems to continually innovate and create differentiated products for our customers (1) worldwide. And in everything we do, we strive for honesty, fairness, and integrity (6). 1. Customer 2. Products or services 3. Markets 4. Technology 5. Concern for survival, profitability, growth 6. Philosophy 7. Self-concept 8. Concern for public image 9.

Concern for employees D. External Audit CPM – Competitive Profile Matrix |  |PepsiCo |Coca-Cola |Kraft | |Critical Success Factors |Weight |Rating |Weighted Score |Rating |Weighted Score |Rating |Weighted Score | |Market Share |0. 1 |3 |0. 30 |4 |0. 40 |2 |0. 20 | |Product Quality |0. 09 |2 |0. 18 |4 |0. 6 |3 |0. 27 | |Customer Service |0. 02 |2 |0. 04 |3 |0. 06 |1 |0. 02 | |Organizational Structure |0. 09 |2 |0. 18 |3 |0. 27 |4 |0. 36 | |Price Competitiveness |0. 09 |2 |0. 18 |3 |0. 27 |1 |0. 09 | |Financial Position |0. 1 |3 |0. 30 |2 |0. 20 |1 |0. 0 | |Customer Loyalty |0. 08 |1 |0. 08 |3 |0. 24 |2 |0. 16 | |Global Expansion |0. 12 |3 |0. 36 |4 |0. 48 |2 |0. 24 | |Advertising |0. 09 |3 |0. 27 |4 |0. 36 |1 |0. 09 | |Social Responsibility |0. 08 |2 |0. 16 |3 |0. 24 |1 |0. 08 | |Quality of management |0. 5 |2 |0. 10 |3 |0. 15 |1 |0. 05 | |Size of product line |0. 09 |3 |0. 27 |2 |0. 18 |1 |0. 09 | |Total |1 |  |2. 42 |  |3. 21 |  |1. 75 | Opportunities 1. Increase in international market demand for colas, chips and breakfast foods 2. In 2013, the United States savory snacks market is forecast to have a value of US$28 billion, an increase of 27. percent since 2008 and the compound annual growth rate of the market in the period 2008–2013 is predicted to be 5 percent 3. Purchase smaller, successful developers of competing products 4. Healthy food snack is on the rise as consumers are shifting to healthy food 5. Teens are less conscious of health issues and still like sweet drinks Threats 1. Regulation – FDA, Clean Water Act, etc. 2. Foreign exchange rates in current economy 3. Raw materials supplies – clean water 4. Changes in consumer taste 5. Health issues – more consumers are shifting to healthy food 6. Consumers switching to lower cost house brands for both snacks and beverages . Substitute products – other snacks, water, tap water, ready-to-drink, sports drinks, etc. 8. Decrease in U. S. cola market 9. Reduction in buying power of large retailers 10. Strong direct (Coke) and indirect (Kraft) competition External Factor Evaluation (EFE) Matrix |Key External Factors |Weight |Rating |Weighted Score | |Opportunities |  |  |  | |Increase in international market demand for colas, chips and breakfast foods |0. 8 |4 |0. 32 | |In 2013, the United States savory snacks market is forecast to have a value of |0. 08 |3 |0. 24 | |US$28 billion, an increase of 27. 8 percent since 2008 and the compound annual | | | | |growth rate of the market in the period 2008-2013 is predicted to be 5 percent | | | | |Purchase smaller, successful developers of competing products |0. 06 |3 |0. 8 | |Healthy food snack is on the rise as consumers are shifting to healthy food |0. 08 |3 |0. 24 | |Teens are less conscious of health issues and still like sweet drinks |0. 08 |3 |0. 24 | |Threats | | |  | |Regulation – FDA. Clean Water Act, etc. |0. 06 |1 |0. 06 | |Foreign exchange rates in current economy |0. 05 |2 |0. | |Raw materials supplies – clean water |0. 07 |2 |0. 14 | |Changes in consumer taste |0. 09 |2 |0. 18 | |Health issues – more consumers are shifting to healthy food |0. 08 |2 |0. 16 | |Consumers switching to lower cost house brands for both snacks and beverages |0. 04 |2 |0. 08 | |Substitute products – other snacks, water, tap water, ready-to-drink, sports |0. 7 |3 |0. 21 | |drinks, etc. | | | | |Decrease in U. S. cola market |0. 06 |2 |0. 12 | |Reduction in buying power of large retailers |0. 04 |2 |0. 08 | |Strong direct (Coke) and indirect (Kraft) competition |0. 06 |3 |0. 18 | |Total |1. 0 |  |2. 53 | Positioning Map [pic] E. Internal Audit Strengths 1. Name recognition both domestically and internationally 2. Stronger than industry average in price to cash flow ratio 3. Strong marketing and promotion advertising campaigns 4. Reliable and established distribution channel management 5. Has diverse business units which reduces overall business risks 6. Recent reorganization 7. Owns more bottling companies than 10 years ago 8. Sales increased by approximately US$3. 5 billion from 2007 to 2008 9. Increase in net profit for the last consecutive years Weaknesses . Short term liability of US$369 due in 2009 2. Increasing long term debt by US$3. 6 billion from 2007 to 2008 3. Increase in other liabilities by US$2. 3 billion from 2007 to 2008 4. Decline in carbonated beverages from 2006 to 2008 5. Recent acquisition of companies could cost the company additional acquisition cost along with some internal negative synergies Financial Ratio Analysis (December 2009) |Growth Rates % |PepsiCo |Industry |S&P 500 | |Sales (Qtr vs year ago qtr) |-1. 0 |-0. 20 |-4. 80 | |Net Income (YTD vs YTD) |2. 00 |3. 70 |-6. 00 | |Net Income (Qtr vs year ago qtr) |9. 00 |-0. 70 |26. 80 | |Sales (5-Year Annual Avg. ) |9. 91 |4. 26 |12. 99 | |Net Income (5-Year Annual Avg. ) |7. 64 |14. 03 |12. 9 | |Dividends (5-Year Annual Avg. ) |21. 24 |10. 40 |11. 83 | | | |Price Ratios |PepsiCo |Industry |S&P 500 | |Current P/E Ratio |18. 3 |18. 3 |26. 7 | |P/E Ratio 5-Year High |NA |11. |16. 6 | |P/E Ratio 5-Year Low |NA |5. 2 |2. 6 | |Price/Sales Ratio |2. 22 |1. 71 |2. 25 | |Price/Book Value |6. 16 |5. 16 |3. 48 | |Price/Cash Flow Ratio |14. 00 |13. 10 |13. 0 | | | |Profit Margins % |PepsiCo |Industry |S&P 500 | |Gross Margin |53. 2 |26. 5 |38. 9 | |Pre-Tax Margin |16. 6 |13. 0 |10. 3 | |Net Profit Margin |12. 3 |9. 7 |7. 1 | |5Yr Gross Margin (5-Year Avg. |54. 9 |46. 8 |38. 6 | |5Yr PreTax Margin (5-Year Avg. ) |18. 7 |13. 5 |16. 6 | |5Yr Net Profit Margin (5-Year Avg. ) |13. 7 |9. 8 |11. 5 | | | |Financial Condition |PepsiCo |Industry |S&P 500 | |Debt/Equity Ratio |0. 2 |0. 92 |1. 09 | |Current Ratio |1. 3 |1. 2 |1. 5 | |Quick Ratio |1. 0 |0. 9 |1. 3 | |Interest Coverage |47. 5 |20. 5 |23. 7 | |Leverage Ratio |2. 5 |3. 0 |3. | |Book Value/Share |9. 81 |8. 52 |21. 63 | Adapted from www. moneycentral. msn. com |  |Avg P/E |Price/ Sales |Price/ Book |Net Profit Margin (%) | |12/08 |20. 60 |2. 02 |7. 00 |11. 9 | |12/07 |20. 00 |3. 24 |7. 17 |14. | |12/06 |18. 30 |3. 00 |6. 67 |16. 0 | |12/05 |23. 30 |3. 10 |6. 87 |12. 5 | |12/04 |21. 20 |3. 07 |6. 45 |14. 2 | |12/03 |21. 60 |3. 00 |6. 67 |13. 2 | |12/02 |27. 70 |2. 6 |7. 53 |11. 8 | |12/01 |34. 60 |3. 77 |9. 93 |10. 2 | |12/00 |28. 80 |3. 97 |11. 33 |11. 4 | |12/08 |20. 60 |2. 02 |7. 00 |11. 9 | |  |Book Value/ Share |Debt/ Equity |Return on Equity (%) |Return on Assets (%) |Interest Coverage | |12/08 |$7. 0 |0. 68 |42. 5 |14. 3 |21. 1 | |12/07 |$10. 74 |0. 24 |32. 8 |16. 3 |32. 0 | |12/06 |$9. 38 |0. 18 |36. 7 |18. 9 |27. 2 | |12/05 |$8. 61 |0. 37 |28. 6 |12. 9 |23. 1 | |12/04 |$8. 05 |0. 26 |30. |14. 9 |31. 5 | |12/03 |$6. 96 |0. 19 |30. 0 |14. 1 |29. 3 | |12/02 |$5. 53 |0. 29 |31. 5 |12. 8 |24. 1 | |12/01 |$4. 94 |0. 35 |27. 7 |11. 1 |16. 6 | |12/00 |$4. 38 |0. 42 |33. 2 |12. 3 |14. | |12/08 |$7. 80 |0. 68 |42. 5 |14. 3 |21. 1 | Adapted from www. moneycentral. msn. com Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) Matrix |Key Internal Factors |Weight |Rating |Weighted Score | |Strengths | |  |  | |Name recognition both domestically and internationally |0. 9 |4 |0. 36 | |Stronger than industry average in price to cash flow ratio |0. 06 |4 |0. 24 | |Strong marketing and promotion advertising campaigns |0. 08 |4 |0. 32 | |Reliable and established distribution channel management |0. 07 |3 |0. 21 | |Has diverse business units which reduces overall business risks |0. 08 |4 |0. 2 | |Recent reorganization |0. 08 |4 |0. 32 | |Owns more bottling companies than 10 years ago |0. 07 |4 |0. 28 | |Sales increased by approximately US$3. 5 billion from 2007 to 2008 |0. 07 |4 |0. 28 | |Increase in net profit for the last consecutive years |0. 06 |3 |0. 8 | |Weaknesses | | |  | |Short term liability of US$369 due in 2009 |0. 07 |1 |0. 07 | |Increasing long term debt by US$3. 6 billion from 2007 to 2008 |0. 09 |1 |0. 09 | |Increase in other liabilities by US$2. 3 billion from 2007 to 2008 |0. 06 |2 |0. 2 | |Decline in carbonated beverages from 2006 to 2008 |0. 05 |1 |0. 05 | |Recent acquisition of companies could cost the company additional acquisition |0. 07 |1 |0. 07 | |cost along with some internal negative synergies | | | | |Total |1. 00 |  |2. 91 | F. SWOT Strategies | |Strengths Weaknesses | | |Name recognition both domestically and |Short term liability of US$369 due in 2009 | | |internationally |Increasing long term debt by US$3. 6 billion | | |Stronger than industry average in price to cash|from 2007 to 2008 | | |flow ratio |Increase in other liabilities by US$2. billion| | |Strong marketing and promotion advertising |from 2007 to 2008 | | |campaigns |Decline in carbonated beverages from 2006 to | | |Reliable and established distribution channel |2008 | | |management |Recent acquisition of companies could cost the | | |Has diverse business units which reduces |company additional acquisition cost along with | | |overall business risks |some internal negative synergies | | |Recent reorganization | | | |Owns more bottling companies than 10 years ago | | | |Sales increased by approximately US$3. billion| | | |from 2007 to 2008 | | | |Increase in net profit for the last consecutive| | | |years | | | |S-O Strategies | | |Opportunities | |W-O Strategies | |Increase in international market demand for |Continue international expansion (S1, S3, S7, |Promote “healthy” snacks and drinks (W4, O4) | |colas, chips and breakfast foods. |O1) | | |In 2013, the United States savory snacks market|Purchase smaller companies offering healthy | | |is forecast to have a value of US$28 billion, |products (S2, S4, S5, O3, O4) | | |an increase of 27. percent since 2008 and the |Consolidate bottling operations (S4, S6, O3) | | |compound annual growth rate of the market in | | | |the period 2008-2013 is predicted to be 5 | | | |percent | | | |Purchase smaller, successful developers of | | | |competing products | | | |Healthy food snack is on the rise as consumers | | | |are shifting to healthy food | | | |Teens are less conscious of health issues and | | | |still like sweet drinks | | | | |S-T Strategies | | |Threats | |W-T Strategies | |Regulation – FDA, Clean Water Act, etc. |Sponsor programs to teens and younger |Sell off non-producing product lines and then | |Foreign exchange rates in current economy |generation to through irtual Facebook, |pay off the long term debt (W1, W2, W3, T8, T9)| |Raw materials supplies – clean water |Twitter, and such (S1, S2, S3, O5) |Reorganize further and use the excess cash to | |Changes in consumer taste | |buy companies with healthier products (W4, W5, | |Health issues – more consumers are shifting to | |T5, T6, T7) | |healthy food | | | |Consumers switching to lower cost house brands | | | |for both snacks and beverages | | | |Substitute products – other snacks, water, tap | | | |water, ready-to-drink, sports drinks, etc. | | |Decrease in U. S. cola market | | | |Reduction in buying power of large retailers | | | |Strong direct (Coke) and indirect (Kraft) | | | |competition | | | G. SPACE Matrix [pic] Financial Stability (FS) | |Environmental Stability (ES) | | |Return on Investment |5 |Unemployment |-4 | |Leverage |5 |Technological Changes |-3 | |Liquidity |5 |Price Elasticity of Demand |-4 | |Working Capital |5 |Competitive Pressure |-5 | |Cash Flow |4 |Barriers to Entry |-4 | | | | | | |Financial Stability (FS) Average |4. |Environmental Stability (ES) Average |-4 | | | | | | |Competitive Stability (CS) | |Industry Stability (IS) | | |Market Share |-2 |Growth Potential |5 | |Product Quality |-2 |Financial Stability |4 | |Customer Loyalty |-2 |Ease of Market Entry |3 | |Competition’s Capacity Utilization |-1 |Resource Utilization |3 | |Technological Know-How |-3 |Profit Potential |3 | | | | | | |Competitive Stability (CS) Average |-2 |Industry Stability (IS) Average |3. 6 | Y-axis: FS + ES = 4. 8 + (-4. 0) = 0. 8 X-axis: CS + IS = (-2. 0) + (3. 6) = 1. 6 H.

Grand Strategy Matrix [pic] 1. Market development 2. Market penetration 3. Product development 4. Forward integration 5. Backward integration 6. Horizontal integration 7. Related diversification I. The Internal-External (IE) Matrix The IFE Total Weighted Score | |Strong |Average |Weak | | |3. 0 to 4. 0 |2. 0 to 2. 99 |1. 0 to 1. 99 | |High |I |II |III | |3. 0 to 3. 9 | | | | | | |PepsiCo Beverages | | | | |[pic] | | | |IV |IV |VI | | | | | | | |PepsiCo International |PepsiCo | | |Medium | | | | |2. 0 to 2. 99 | | | | |Low |VII |VIII |IX | |1. 0 to 1. 99 | | | | J. QSPM   |  |Continue international|Purchase smaller | | | |expansion |companies offering | | | | |healthy products | |Key Factors |Weight |AS |TAS |AS |TAS | |Opportunities |  |  |  |  |  | |Increase in international market demand for colas, chips and breakfast |0. 08 |4 |0. 32 |1 |0. 08 | |foods | | | | | | |In 2013, the United States savory snacks market is forecast to have a |0. 08 |4 |0. 32 |2 |0. 6 | |value of US$28 billion, an increase of 27. 8 percent since 2008 and the | | | | | | |compound annual growth rate of the market in the period 2008-2013 is | | | | | | |predicted to be 5 percent | | | | | | |Purchase smaller, successful developers of competing products |0. 06 |1 |0. 06 |3 |0. 18 | |Healthy food snack is on the rise as consumers are shifting to healthy |0. 08 |1 |0. 08 |4 |0. 2 | |food | | | | | | |Teens are less conscious of health issues and still like sweet drinks |0. 08 |1 |0. 08 |3 |0. 24 | |Threats | |  |  | |Regulation – FDA, Clean Water Act, etc. |0. 06 |— |— |— |— | |Foreign exchange rates in current economy |0. 05 |3 |0. 15 |1 |0. 05 | |Raw materials supplies – clean water |0. 07 |1 |0. 07 |3 |0. 1 | |Changes in consumer taste |0. 09 |1 |0. 09 |3 |0. 27 | |Health issues – more consumers are shifting to healthy food |0. 08 |1 |0. 08 |3 |0. 24 | |Consumers switching to lower cost house brands for both snacks and |0. 04 |— |— |— |— | |beverages | | | | | | |Substitute products – other snacks, water, tap water, ready-to-drink, |0. 07 |1 |0. 7 |4 |0. 28 | |sports drinks, etc. | | | | | | |Decrease in U. S. cola market |0. 06 |4 |0. 24 |2 |0. 12 | |Reduction in buying power of large retailers |0. 04 |— |— |— |— | |Strong direct (Coke) and indirect (Kraft) competition |0. 06 |1 |0. 06 |4 |0. 24 | |TOTAL |1. 00 |  |1. 62 |  |2. 9 | |Strengths |  |  |  | |Name recognition both domestically and internationally |0. 09 |4 |0. 36 |1 |0. 09 | |Stronger than industry average in price to cash flow ratio |0. 06 |— |— |— |— | |Strong marketing and promotion advertising campaigns |0. 08 |— |— |— |— | |Reliable and established distribution channel management |0. 07 |2 |0. 14 |4 |0. 8 | |Has diverse business units which reduces overall business risks |0. 08 |— |— |— |— | |Recent reorganization |0. 08 |— |— |— |— | |Owns more bottling companies than 10 years ago |0. 07 |1 |0. 07 |3 |0. 21 | |Sales increased by approximately US$3. 5 billion from 2007 to 2008 |0. 07 |— |— |— |— | |Increase in net profit for the last consecutive years |0. 06 |1 |0. 06 |3 |0. 8 | |Weaknesses | |  |  |  | |Short term liability of US$369 due in 2009 |0. 07 |— |— |— |— | |Increasing long term debt by US$3. 6 billion from 2007 to 2008 |0. 09 |— |— |— |— | |Increase in other liabilities by US$2. 3 billion from 2007 to 2008 |0. 06 |3 |0. 18 |1 |0. 06 | |Decline in carbonated beverages from 2006 to 2008 |0. 05 |1 |0. 05 |3 |0. 15 | |Recent acquisition of companies could cost the company additional |0. 7 |— |— |— |— | |acquisition cost along with some internal negative synergies | | | | | | |SUBTOTAL |1. 00 |  |0. 86 |  |0. 97 | |SUM TOTAL ATTRACTIVENESS SCORE |  |  |2. 48 |  |3. 36 | K. Recommendations Purchase smaller companies that offer healthier drinks and snacks. Utilize the existing distribution channel for promoting the new line and use penetration pricing strategies to gain market share rapidly and against the competitors. EPS/EBIT Analysis

US$ Amount Needed: $500 million Stock Price: US$61. 37 Tax Rate: 26. 8% Interest Rate: 5% # Shares Outstanding: 1. 6 Billion |  |Common Stock Financing |Debt Financing | |  |Recession |Normal |Boom |Recession |Normal |Boom | |  |70 Percent Stock – 30 Percent Debt |70 Percent Debt – 30 Percent Stock | Recession |Normal |Boom |Recession |Normal |Boom | |EBIT |$7,000,000,000 |$8,000,000,000 |$9,000,000,000 |$7,000,000,000 |$8,000,000,000 |$9,000,000,000 | |Interest |20,000,000 |20,000,000 |20,000,000 |5,000,000 |5,000,000 |5,000,000 | |EBT |6,980,000,000 |7,980,000,000 |8,980,000,000 |6,995,000,000 |7,995,000,000 |8,995,000,000 | |Taxes |1,870,640,000 |2,138,640,000 |2,406,640,000 |1,874,660,000 |2,142,660,000 |2,410,660,000 | |EAT |5,109,360,000 |5,841,360,000 |6,573,360,000 |5,120,340,000 |5,852,340,000 |6,584,340,000 | |# Shares |1,605,703,112 |1,605,703,112 |1,605,703,112 |1,602,444,191 |1,602,444,191 |1,602,444,191 | |EPS |3. 18 |3. 64 |4. 09 |3. 20 |3. 65 |4. 11 | | M. Epilogue PepsiCo continues to make strong growth moves on both the national and international stage, even in the struggling economy.

First quarter results for Pepsi Bottling show it has been very profitable due to price increases and stronger U. S. sales of carbonated soft drinks. This helped offset the declining demand for pricier beverages such as bottled water. In the United States, PepsiCo’s major move has been a bid to buy the remaining shares of Pepsi Bottling. PepsiCo currently owns 33 percent of Pepsi Bottling. Pepsi Bottling has rejected this bid as being too low; however, it is expected that PepsiCo will continue with its bid to buy the remaining shares of the bottling company. To further improve its international operations, PepsiCo has made a bid to buy PepsiAmericas. Basically, this would consolidate control of the Americas operations.

Additionally PepsiCo has pledged to invest US$1 billion in Russia over the next three years, bringing its total investment to US$4 billion over a ten year time span. PepsiCo will also invest over US$1 billion in China over the next 4 years. This is in addition to continued investments in Japan, India, Europe, Mexico and Latin America. For the first quarter ending 3/21/09, PepsiCo’s net revenues of US$8,263 million are down US$70 million from the same quarter in 2008. However, PepsiCo has also controlled costs by decreasing cost of goods sold by US$90 million and decreasing sales, general and administrative expenses by US$9 million (same quarter comparison).

This has resulted in a net profit of US$1,141 million, which is US$90 million less than last year’s first quarter. PepsiCo may need to further adjust costs to reflect continuing economic troubles as consumers shift to less costly drinks and snacks. Second quarter results continued the downward trend with beverage volume down 6 percent, Frito-Lay down 3 percent, and Quaker down 4 percent. However international volume was up 1 percent in snacks and 6 percent in beverages. The first quarter balance sheet shows that cash is up slightly whereas current liabilities are down slightly; long-term debt has climbed US$1,393 million to a total of US$9,251 million. Part of this increase may well be due to aggressive expansion activities throughout the world.

Second quarter for PepsiCo shows better than expected profits based on cost cutting and growth in developing countries such as China and India. However, growth in the U. S. market continues to remain weak with a 1 percent decrease in volume. ———————– Strong Product Variety Weak Product Variety Customer Loyalty (High) Customer Loyalty (Low) Pepsi Coke -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 7 -6 -1 -7 -5 -4 -3 -2 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Defensive Competitive Aggressive Conservative 1 2 3 4 5 6 IS ES CS FS Slow Market Growth Rapid Market Growth Strong Competitive Position Quadrant III Quadrant IV Quadrant I Quadrant II Weak Competitive Position The EFE Total Weighted Score