Risk Assessment By Government And Private Entities Construction Essay

In order to run into the populace ‘s increasing demand for a safer, healthier workplace the pattern of hazard appraisal by authorities and private entities has steadily increased over the past decennary ( Solvic, 1998 ) . Matching with this addition has been an addition in guidance certification such as statute law and codifications of patterns covering with at least some facets of occupational hazard, safety or ergonomic appraisal. In the United Kingdom these paperss include, but is non limited to:

Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999

Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992

Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992

Health and Safety ( Display Screen Equipment ) Regulations 1992 ( The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2010 )

Although there are assorted methods which could be utilized to run into the hazard appraisal demands of the above ordinances ( and other similar counsel paperss ) there are cardinal factors which unite these methods. In this study these indispensable factors, which are considered when determining hazard, will be identified.


The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction ( ISDR ) Secretariat defines hazard appraisal as a methodological analysis to find the nature and extent of hazard by analyzing possible jeopardies and measuring bing conditions of exposure that could present a possible menace or injury to people, belongings, supports and the environment on which they depend ( ISDR, 2010 ) . Risk appraisal may besides be defined as the procedure of gauging the magnitude of hazard and make up one’s minding whether or non the hazard is tolerable ( Trinidad and Tobago Bureau of Standards, 2008 ) .

Types of Risk Assessment

It should be noted that neither of the above definitions of hazard appraisal province the mode in which the appraisal is carried out. This is due to the fact that the procedure is dependent on the nature of the work or concern and the types of jeopardies and hazards.

Based on the methodological analysis used there are two basic signifiers of hazard appraisal: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative hazard appraisals are the more common of the two due to its simpleness. This method is subjective, based on personal judgement, and usually defines hazard as high, medium or low ( Hughes and Ferrett, 2003 ) . This hazard appraisal method is suited for work or concerns where the hazard degree can be judged from historical informations or via counsel certification. Where such information is lacking such as in the instance of a new procedure or where the hazard associated with the activities are high a quantitative hazard appraisal is required. In this hazard appraisal method hazard is given a numerical value by associating the chance of the hazard happening to the possible badness of the result ( Hughes and Ferrett, 2003 ) . Quantitative hazard appraisals methods such as Event Tree Analysis are carried out in the oil and gas industry to determine hazard associated with for illustration the debut of a new procedure.

Basic Stairss to Risk Assessment

As antecedently stated there are no fixed regulations about how a hazard appraisal is carried out ( University of Bristol, 2010 ) . Harmonizing to the United Kingdom: Health and Safety Executive papers entitled “ Five Stairss to Risk Assessment: nevertheless there are five basic stairss in executing an business wellness and safety hazard appraisal. They are as follows:

Measure 1: Identify the jeopardy

Measure 2: Decide who might be harmed and how

Measure 3: Measure the hazard and make up one’s mind on safeguards

Measure 4: Record your findings and implement them

Measure 5: Review your appraisal and update if necessary ( HSE, 2006 ) .

Measure 1: Identifying Hazards

A jeopardy is the potency of a substance, activity or procedure to do injury ( HSE, 2006 ) . There are four chief types of jeopardy:

Physical – such as electrical jeopardies ( frayed cords and improper wiring ) ,

Biological – such as blood or bodily fluids, Fungis, bacteriums and viruses,

Ergonomic – such as hapless lighting, improperly adjusted workstations and chairs, and

Chemical – such as dissolvers, welding exhausts, ethyne and explosive chemicals ( Ontario Ministry of Labour, 2010 ) .

Beginnings for hazard designation can be:

Past incidents and accidents

Input by employees

Analyzing workplaces or work countries

Review of safety direction for equipment and stuffs

Any sort of originative thought such as brainstorming

Advice from statute law, criterions, checklists or external advisers ( Fiedler, 2004 ) .

Measure 2: Decide who might be harmed and how

To guarantee that hazard is efficaciously mitigated, for each jeopardy identified the potentially impacted group ( “ trainees ” ) and how the group is impacted ( “ trainees may endure hurt from working unsupervised on equipment ” ) must be stated ( HSE, 2006 ) .

To efficaciously carry through this measure the following groups should be given particular involvement:

Workers with peculiar demands such as new employees and immature individuals, new or anticipant female parents and people with disablements.

Workers who may non be in the workplace all the clip such as cleaners, visitants, contractors, care workers.

Members of the populace who might be harmed.

Other residents of the workplace ( HSE, 2006 ) .

Measure 3: Measure the hazards and make up one’s mind on safeguards

Upon placing the jeopardies the hazards associated with these jeopardies must be assessed. Hazard is typically assessed by its likeliness and its effect.

The undermentioned facets are helpful in finding the likeliness of a hazard:

Other hazards that add to the addition of likeliness

Frequency of happening

Duration of hazard happening

Number of people being exposed

Likely dosage of exposure

Required exposure degrees

Consequently the effects have to be determined. With respect to belongings and environmental harm these effects can be expressed in footings of money. Whenever people are harmed the effects can be expressed in footings of earnestness of the unwellness or hurt. This has further to be put in relation to who is harmed, particularly people at a peculiar hazard such as anticipant female parents or immature people.

The appraisal of hazard will supply the assessor with an understanding with respects to the range of the hazards in the workplace and let for prioritization of hazards for taking extenuation actions ( Fiedler, 2004 ) .

The likeliness and/or effect of a hazard can be reduced via the execution of extenuation action. In implementing extenuation actions/controls the hierarchy of control must be consulted in order to guarantee that the best possible step is implemented for the state of affairs. The hierarchy of control is a sequence of options which offers a figure of ways to near jeopardy control. When choosing hazard control options one starts at with the most desirable option at the top of the list and work your manner down. The hierarchy of control is as follows:

Extinguish the jeopardy – take risky electrical works from the workplace.

If this is non practical, so:

Substitute the jeopardy with a lesser hazard – usage low electromotive force electrical works.

If this is non practical, so:

Isolate the jeopardy – topographic point risky electrical works in enclosures with restricted entree.

If this is non practical, so:

Use technology controls – usage RCDs ( safety switches ) to protect socket mercantile establishments which supply electrical works.

If this is non practical, so:

Use administrative controls – perform regular review and trials on electrical works and electrical installings and implement safe work patterns, direction and preparation.

If this is non practical, so:

Use personal protective equipment – usage gum elastic mats, insulated baseball mitts, oculus protection, boots, and caput cogwheel ( besides to be used in concurrence with above steps ) ( Government of South Australia, 2007 ) .

Measure 4: Record your findings and implement them

Upon the completion of the hazard assessment the findings of the appraisal must be recorded. The appraisal must besides be suited and sufficient. That is the hazard appraisal should place the hazards originating from or in connexion with work and the degree of item appropriate to the hazard ( University of Bristol, 2010 ) .

Based on degree of hazard associated with the identified jeopardy an action must besides be developed, turn toing high hazard points foremost.

Measure 5: Review your hazard appraisal and update if necessary

In order to guarantee that the hazard appraisal remains accurate and up to day of the month with the dynamic nature of most concerns the procedure should be repeated yearly or when there is any alteration in the workplace which could ensue in the initiation of a new jeopardy.

Why perform hazard appraisal?

Hazard appraisals are performed for legislative, economic and moral grounds. As indicated in the subdivisions above hazard appraisal is an indispensable constituent of the safety direction system. As such hazard appraisals are a statutory demand in states such as the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Trinidad and Tobago.

There has been an increasing sense of moral duty to supply safety for employees and citizens worldwide. This is reflected by the constitution of legion safety boards, organisations, associations and councils which have been formed independent of regulative authorization or spiritual history. Many concerns have besides developed safety plans which exceed statutory demands although assorted issues may be involved in this determination doing procedure, morality is an issue leaders frequently cite ( Eckhardt, 2001 ) .

The designation of hazard and its extenuation are cardinal constituents of hazard appraisal. These steps in bend can cut down the happening and/or badness of an accident and by extension organisational costs. Conducting a hazard appraisal can therefore salvage an organisation both the direct and indirect cost ( which can be up to 36 times greater than direct cost ) associated with an accident ( Hughes and Ferrett, 2003 ) .

Risk Assessment Factors

Based on the information provided in Sections 1 to 5 above the undermentioned factors have been identified as those to be considered in set abouting a hazard appraisal:

Type of hazard appraisal

Types of jeopardies present in the organisation

Who might be harmed?

Probability of an accident happening

Consequence i.e. badness of possible impact on people, assets, environment and repute

Extenuation of hazard

Suitable and sufficient hazard appraisal

Moral, economic and legal considerations

Competence of hazard assessors

Accuracy of informations or information

Historical informations

Consequence on organisational ends

Enforcement and punishments of the bing legal model

The type of hazard appraisal performed is mostly based on the type of hazard nowadays in the organisation, the degree of hazard ( which is a map of the chance of an accident and effect ) associated with eth workplace activities and the handiness of information and counsel paperss.

To guarantee efficient averment of the degree of hazard associated with each jeopardy in an indifferent mode the hazard appraisal must be done by a competent individual and based on accurate information and historical informations where available. Accurate information, historical informations and a competent hazard assessor would besides lend geeatly to the development of a suited and sufficient hazard appraisal.


Section 13A of the Trinidad and Tobago Occupational Safety and Health Act No. 1 of 2004 ( as amended ) , here after referred to as the OSH Act, requires that every employer make a suited and sufficient one-year hazard appraisal.