- Name of civilization
- Where is your civilization located?
- Making a Life
- Political System
- Kinship System
- Sexual activity and Gender
- Interesting fact
What is the name of your chosen civilization? What is the significance of the name in English? Do the people in your civilization call themselves this name – if non, what do they name themselves and what does it intend in English? Do neighbouring groups name them something else? If so, what is that, and what does it state about dealingss between the two groups? Add your ain thoughts…
The name of the chosen civilization is Ifugao. The beginning of the Ifugao comes from the term Ipugo, which means “ from the hill ” . Harmonizing to their mythology, their name is derived from Ipugo which refers to the rice grain given to them by their God, Matungulan. Besides, others say that the name comes from the word “ I-pugaw ” which slackly translates to “ dwellers of the Earth. ” Neighboring people refer to the Ifugao people as Kiangianl. Today, the people who inhabit this state refer to themselves as the Ifugao, although the country contains people who are non.
Where is your civilization located? Be every bit specific as possible – include district/province/state/nation and town/village names, every bit good as of import geographical characteristics nearby ( a mountain scope, a major river, etc. ) What is the relationship between your group and the state ( s ) in which it is located? Is your group coextensive with a nation-state? Add your ain thoughts…
The Ifugao civilization inhabits an country of approximately 750 to 970 square stat mis in northern Luzon, which is located in the Philippines. The civilization resides in the most rugged and cragged parts of the Philippines, which is high in the Gran Cordillera Central in northern Luzon. The Gran Cordillera Central of Northern Luzon is consumed with a broad assortment of natural countries. Harmonizing to Fowler, “ The Gran Cordillera Central of Northern Luzon is a disorderly mass of exalted extremums and plumping ravines, of little fecund vales cleaved by rainfed, boulder-strewn rivers, and of soundless, mist-shrouded, moss-veiled woods wherein orchids in their deathlike beauty unfold like inert butterflies. ” The cragged extremums rise from 1,000 to 5,000 metres and are drained by the Waterss of the Magat River. Harmonizing to Siangho, “ Their neighbours to the North are the Bontco ; to the E Gaddang ; to the West Kankanay and Ibaloy ; and to the south the Ikalaham and Iwak. ” It is believed the Ifugao were likely dwellers of the nearby fertile fields, which is greatly opposite of their current home. It is besides believed that they were driven out of these fields by Malaysians because of their superior arms. This is why they presently reside in the mountain side.
The Republic of the Philippines is an archipelago of about 7,000 islands. The first people arrived about 100,000 old ages ago. These persons were huntsmans and gatherers who survived off of the land ‘s basic resources. Thousands of old ages subsequently, people arrived from Asia and brough with them agricultural accomplishments and societal construction. From this cross-cultural intermingling, a civilization was created and the Philippines was born.
What linguistic communication do people in your civilization speak? Supply some inside informations about the linguistic communication – specifically, the “ linguistic communication household ” it belongs to, and an interesting fact or two about its construction. ( Example: in Sinhalese, at the terminal of an interrogative, you have to add a particular “ inquiry grade ” word. ) Add your ain thoughts…
The linguistic communication name of the Ifugao people is Ifugao. The linguistic communication household returns like this: Austronesian Malayo-polynesian, Northern Luzon South-Central, Cordilleran Central, Cordilleran Nuclear, and so Cordilleran Ifugao. Therefore, the linguistic communication household of the Ifugao linguistic communication is Malayo-polynesian.
There are Four divergent idioms of the Ifugao linguistic communication: Amganad, Batad, Mayoyao, Tuwali, each with distinguishable assortments: Amganad: Burnay Ifugao, Banaue Ifugao ; Batad: Ayangan Ifugao, Batad Ifugao, Ducligan Ifugao ; Tuwali: Apao Ifugao, Hungduan Ifugao, Lagawe Ifugao.
As stated by “ The Ifugao – native people, ” “ The Ifugao have a linguistic communication that changes from small town to village. Dialect and alteration of pronunciation can do it a existent challenge to keep a conversation between neighbouring villagers. However, an official linguistic communication lexicon has been produced. ”
What do the colonies in your civilization expression like ( large crowded small towns, scattered homes, bantam crossroadss, etc. ) ? Provide as many inside informations as possible, including things like mean population size, types of streets ( if any ) , types of private edifices ( places, guesthouses ) , types of public edifices ( schools, infirmaries ) , types of recreational edifices ( nines, secret society edifices, pools, rec centres ) , types of commercial edifices ( stores, service centres ) , types of spiritual edifices, etc. Is at that place some kind of symbolism associated with the spacial agreement of the colonies ( oriented to the East, handbill to stand for a cosmology, etc. ) ? Add your ain thoughts…
Population within Ifugao society in the 20th century has varied anyplace from 60,000 to over 100,000. Harmonizing to Malone, “ Population denseness in some countries approaches 400 per square stat mi. ” The lone architectural constructions noted for this group of people are the houses in which they reside and their extended rice cakes that extend from halfway up the mountain side all the manner down to the underside of the vale.
The Ifugao people live in crossroadss. These are like bantam communities that are located alongside the mountain near an proprietors rice patty. There are about 8 to 12 houses per crossroads. There are besides constructing for the single, which is discussed subsequently in this assignment.
Describe the houses in your civilization ( straw huts, clay walled thatched roof homes, etc. ) . Be every bit elaborate as possible, including size, layout, stuffs, colourss, even monetary values if available. Who lives in a typical house? Women, work forces, kids, elderly? Animals? Add your ain thoughts…
The houses of the Ifugao people are really little. The typical family consists of the atomic household. A atomic household is a household consisting of merely a female parent, male parent and their kids. Once a kid becomes a adolescent and he or she is old plenty to take attention of his or herself, they go in live in either male child or girl places. Typically the Ifugao house sits on four hardy stations, with no Windowss. Harmonizing to Fowler, “ Inside there is an unfastened Earth and rock hearth for cooking and floor mats for kiping and sitting. Family gear, such as baskets, bowls, vesture, accomplishments ( human and animate being ) , and charming points, are hung from the walls or stacked on carven shelves. Although Ifugao houses vary little from this basic constellation, houses of aristocracy frequently feature differences, such as monolithic Hagabi lounging benches, decorated Attic beams, kingposts and doorposts carved with human images, and ornate exterior frezies portraying hogs, carabao and other animate beings. ”
The grownups and their smaller kids ( one ‘s who can non take attention of themselves ) live together while kids who can keep their ain lifestyle live in different houses. When the adolescents reach the age where they become interested in the opposite sex, the male adolescents leave their house during the twenty-four hours to run into females in other houses. From this intermingling, twosomes finally form. Soon after a miss becomes pregnant, the twosome will wed. After matrimony, the twosome will either construct their ain place, live in a place of person who has died without childs, or live in a place left by one of their parents. After they settle in to their house, it is the ma ‘s responsibility to take attention of the kid and the pa ‘s responsibility to supply for the household.
How make the people in your civilization make a life? Describe what anthropologists call their “ adaptative scheme. ” ( foragers, horticulturalists, pastoralists, agriculturists, industrialists ) . Supply some inside informations about their subsistence system ( what game do they run, what harvests do they turn, what animate beings do they crowd, etc. ) . Add your ain thoughts…
Peoples in the Ifugao civilization live a really basic life style to do a life. The usual life style consists of agribusiness and hunting, with anthropologists qualifying the adaptative scheme as agriculturalists. Harmonizing to Malone, “ Ifugao remission is derived chiefly from agribusiness ( 84 per centum ) with an extra 10 per centum derived from the elevation of aquatic zoologies, such as Phoxinus phoxinuss and snails, in afloat rice Fieldss. The staying six per centum of subsistence involve fishing ( fish, eels, toads, snails and H2O boodles ) ; runing ( cervid, wild American bison, wild hogs, civet cats, wild cat, python, iguana, cobra, and fruitbat ) ; and assemblage of insects ( locusts, crickets, and emmets ) every bit good as big assortment of wild workss. ” As we can see, the chief responsibilities are be givening to the rice cakes. The work forces are normally the 1s that participate in the hunting and fishing. When the work forces hunt after wild cervid and hog, they normally use runing Canis familiariss to help them. The Canis familiariss are non raised to finally eat ( like some nearby civilizations ) ; the Ifugao people respect and admire Canis familiariss.
Describe your civilization ‘s political system. Use the anthropological footings we have learned in category ( set, folk, chiefdom, province ) . Supply some inside informations about the civilization ‘s power/authority system – how do persons acquire into a place of power? What are traditional methods of societal control and struggle direction? Add your ain thoughts…
The Ifugao political system is better characterized as a sociopolitical organisation. Harmonizing to the article, Ifugao – Sociopolitical Organization, “ Traditionally, societal distinction has been based on wealth, measured in footings of rice land, H2O American bison and slaves. The affluent blue bloods are known as kadangyan. The ownership of hagabi, a big hardwood bench, occurs their position symbolically. The Ifugao have little by manner of a formal political system ; there are no heads or councils. There are, nevertheless, about 150 territories ( himputona’an ) , each comprised of several crossroadss ; in the centre of each territory is a specifying ritual rice field ( putona’an ) , the proprietor ( tomona ‘ ) of which makes all agricultural determinations for the territory. ”
Government is ill established among the Ifugao ‘s. Harmonizing to Malone, “ The maps of authorities are ( or were ) accomplished by the operation of corporate affinity duties, including the menace of blood feud, together with common apprehension of the adat or usage jurisprudence given the people by ascendant heroes, in peculiar the inviolability of personal and belongings rights. ”
Work force earn regard harmonizing to their rice cake ‘s. The bigger their cake is, the high position they have in the community. Besides, within the Ifugao community, there is a “ rice head ” . The rice head is one of the taking priests and the people respect him for spiritual authorization, but he does non hold ultimate authorization over the Ifugao people. For the most portion, people are “ on their ain ” when it comes to authorities control.
Use anthropological footings to depict your civilization ‘s affinity system ( matrilineal, patrilineal, etc. ) . Supply a brief definition of that type of affinity, and so state why your civilization fits that definition. Describe the affinity nomenclature, and supply illustrations. Add your ain thoughts…
Harmonizing to Malone, “ Each sibling group is the centre of an exogamic, bilateral kindred. : Basically, this is descent traced and kinship groups assigned through both male and female lines with matrimonies being “ outbred ” alternatively of “ inbred ” relationships between households. Basically, people do n’t get married within their household, but outside of it.
The grownups and little kids all live together. When the kid comes “ of age ” , which is fundamentally a adolescent, they move out of their parents house and live on their ain in a 2nd house with other childs their age of the same sex. When the work forces begin to seek for married womans, they leave their houses during the twenty-four hours and the adult females stay in their places to recognize and welcome work forces. They start in a really cool and unagitated atmosphere, such as gags and insouciant talk, but finally relationships signifier. After a miss becomes pregnant, they will wed. At this point the twosome will either construct their house or populate a house left by their parents or person who has passed off without kids. When they are settled in, the female parent ‘s responsibility is to care for the kid while the male parent Hunts for nutrient for the household.
Describe your civilization ‘s matrimony system. How do people take a mate? Is there a peculiar class of individual an person is supposed to get married ( illustration: in El Nahra, where Elizabeth Fernea lived, people were supposed to get married their cousins ) . Are matrimonies arranged, or do persons acquire to pick their ain partners? Could you imagine yourself acquiring married the manner people do in that civilization? Add your ain thoughts…
Marriage within the Ifugao civilization is rather simple. The normal signifier of matrimony in the Ifugao society is monogamy. Monogamy is being married to merely one individual at a clip. Although monogamousness is widely practiced, polygyny is practiced on occasion by the wealthy. Even thought the defimition of polygyny is that either male or female may hold multiple partners, it is mailnly the males that have multiple married womans. In these state of affairss, the first married woman has higher authorization and position than her co-wives.
Harmonizing to Malone, “ Marriages are confederations between kin groups. First cousin matrimonies are forbidden in pattern and theory, but marriages to more distant cousins can take topographic point. ” These matrimonies can take topographic point with a payment of mulcts in farm animal.
The work forces are able to take their married womans within this civilization. There are no constituted or set matrimonies for the Ifugao people. When the work forces are interested in matrimony, they begin run intoing other adult females in their society. When they begin their relationship, it is a really insouciant environment. Finally it become serious, and after the adult female is pregnant, the adult male and married woman get married. They will so travel into their ain topographic point together to get down their household.
This seems pretty similar to the American matrimony system on the fact that we look for and take our ain mate. Some people get married before they are pregnant while others get pregnant before they are married ( although some people may ne’er get married ) . I think this is decidedly a civilization I could be a portion of, in the interest of their matrimony system that is.
How would you depict gender dealingss in your civilization? Do work forces and adult females live wholly separate lives, as in Guests of the Sheik, or do they blend it up? How much power do adult females hold over their ain lives and the lives of others? Do adult females hold official political power? Is at that place a gender division of labour ( at that place has to be – every civilization has one! ) ? Given your ain gender, would you wish to populate in that civilization? Add your ain thoughts…
Ifugao society is much separated. Men and adult females live apart unless they are married and/or brother and sister, but even at a certain age of childhood ; they go and live on their ain, off from their parents. Work force are the 1s who hold political power, or deficiency thereof, in the Ifugao civilization. Normally, the lone “ powerful ” people in this society are work forces who are respected because of their wealth. The division of labour is set between the genders every bit good. Since this a really simplistic civilization, the adult females tend to the kids and house work while the work forces tend to the Fieldss of rice and runing nutrient for the household. I would name it a authoritative, mobile manner of life.
Another note that adult females are non as “ powerful ” or extremely touted as work forces is the fact that, in the instance that polygyny does be, it is with multiple married womans and normally non multiple hubbies. This signifier of matrimony is really rare and merely among the elite and rich people in the civilization.
For me, I would n’t wish to populate within this civilization. I think it is good for work forces and adult females to blend and mix within the workplace, place, and political power. Work force and adult females bring different thoughts and ways of life to the tabular array, and I think a successful civilization allows work forces and adult females to blend freely. Therefore, I would non desire to populate in the Ifugao society.
Describe the faith ( or faiths ) found in your civilization. Do people believe in a God or Gods? Do people in your civilization pattern thaumaturgy? If so, what sort? How has missional activity affected people in your civilization ( if it has ) Add your ain thoughts…
Religion is an indispensable portion of the Ifugao civilization and is important in every stage of life. Their faith provides a agencies by with the unknown can be approached and understood. Ifugao faith is a really complex construction based on ascendant worship, animism, and charming power. Harmonizing to Fowler “ The Ifugao pantheon consists of countless religious entities that represent natural elements, forces and phenomena in add-on to hereditary and methphysical existences. The trust and assurance that the Ifugao have in these existences allow them to confront what is frequently a complex and awful universe with a great trade of assurance and apprehension. They believe that the Gods and other existences are accessible and can be influenced by the proper rites and behaviour to mediate on behalf of an person or the full community. By and large the Gods are viewed as generous and benign existences who enjoy banqueting, imbibing vino and masticating betel nut, as do the Ifugao themselves. However, the Gods are speedy to anger and if ignored or treated severely can rapidly go crabbed, demanding autocrats capable of doing bad luck and hurt. ”
The Ifugao people have created ceremonials to honour and esteem their divinities, although some are seldom acknowledged or called upon. Others, who control day-to-day life, such as agribusiness and wellness, are invariably worshipped and called upon. The greatest importance to the Ifugao are rice or agricultural divinities which have the power to guarantee big harvests and really increase the sum of rice already in storage.
Supply one extra interesting fact about your civilization. Do they hold a absorbing set of thoughts about unwellness, disease and hardening? Describe it. Do they hold an luxuriant art manner? Describe it. Make they prosecute in sexual patterns that work stoppage you as really different from that of Western Society? Talk about it. Do they hold a peculiar type of organic structure alteration ( scarification for illustration ) or manner of organic structure adornment? What is it? You do n’t hold to reply all of these inquiries – pick one or one of your ain choosing and supply as much information as you can happen.
Although the Ifugao have no cognition in composing, they were capable of making a literature that matches with some of the state ‘s finest in heroic poem and folk narrative. Their literature is passed orally. Their conundrums serve to entertain the group every bit good as educate the immature. One such illustration of an Ifugao conundrum is, harmonizing to Siangio: “ Dapa-om ke nan balena ya mubuttikan nan kumbale. ” This translates to: “ Touch the house and the proprietor runs about. ” The reply is spider.
When the Ifugao gather together, they use Proverbss to give advice to the immature. These Proverbss are used to emphasize a points. The 1s who have gone to formal school begin their talks before big meetings or assemblages with Proverbs. Here are a few Ifugao Proverbs harmonizing to Sianghio:
“ Hay mahlu ya adi maagangan: : The hardworking will ne’er travel hungry. Hay “ uya-uy ” di puntupong hello kinadangyan di ohan tago. : : The banquet is the yardstick of a individual ‘s wealth. Hay itanum minute, ya hidiyeh aniyom: : What you have planted is what you will harvest. ”
Ifugao myths normally are about hero ascendants, Gods and other supernatural existences. They narrative lines normally have these heroes confronting jobs that they are presently confronting. This allows the Ifugao people to supply hope and comfort to their places. When these narratives are recited, they are normally in barked-out, terse phrases followed by the tulud, which means “ forcing ” . The tulud aims to convey the charming powers that stand behind the myth. At the terminal, the determiner kalidi is chanted and the narrarator enumerates the benefits which should be obtained from the myth. The myths are normally concluded with the phrase, “ because thou art being mythed. ” They have myths that screen common cultural narratives such as: creative activity of the universe, creative activity of adult male, great conflicts and heroic poem battles. They besides have narratives that cover other worldly known events, such as the “ great inundation ” or “ Noah ‘s Arc ” to the Bible. Harmonizing to Sianghio, “ Other Ifugao legends that have been recorded include, “ The Legend of the Ambuwaya Lake ” ; “ The Origin of the Pitpit or The Bird of Omen ” ; “ Why the Dead Come Back no More ” ; and “ How Lagawe Got Its Name ” . ”
Other such of import narratives are the charming narratives, called abuwab. These narratives are believed to possess mystical powers. Harmonizing to Siangho, “ Examples are the “ poho-phod ” and “ chiloh narratives ” , which are normally told in decease and illness rites. The abuwab is normally about the legendary hubby and married woman, Bugan and Wigan. ”
Besides, Siangho says, “ The Ifugao heroic poems are chanted love affairs stating of the beginnings of the people, the life and escapade of the Ifugao heroes, the heroism of work forces and the beauty of adult females, every bit good as antediluvian imposts and traditions. ”
- Fowler, John. “ The Ifugao: A Mountain People of the Philippines. ” Tribal Site. N.p. , n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2009. & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tribalsite.com/articles/ ifugao.htm & A ; gt ; .
- Froiland, Andrew. “ Ifugao. ” Ifugao. Minnesota State University, n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2009. & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/oldworld/asia/ ifugaopeople.html & A ; gt ; .
- “ Ifugao – Sociopolitical Organization. ” Countries and Their Culture. N.p. , n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2009. & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.everyculture.com/East-Southeast-Asia/ Ifugao-Sociopolitical-Organization.html & A ; gt ; .
- Malorie, Martin. “ Society – Ifugao. ” The Center for Social Anthropology and Computing. University of Kent at Canterburry, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2009. & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //lucy.ukc.ac.uk/EthnoAtlas/Hmar/Cult_dir/Culture.7848 & A ; gt ; .
- Sianghio, Christina. “ Ifugao. ” litera1no4.tripod.com. N.p. , n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2009. & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //litera1no4.tripod.com/ifugao_frame.html # top & A ; gt ; .
- “ The Ifugao – native people. ” eSSORTMENT. N.p. , 2002. Web. 4 Dec. 2009. & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.essortment.com/all/ifugaoculturep_rdqk.htm & A ; gt ; .