SAMPLE LESSON PLANS FOR ELL STUDENTS: Elementary, Middle and High School Level From: The U. S. Department of Education’s Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement ; Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (OELA) ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 1 Title: Metaphor Content: Language arts Grade Level: Fifth grade Learning outcomes: reading a poem that uses metaphor learning the meaning of metaphor discussing the use of metaphor writing a poem Vocabulary: metaphor (see attached poem for unfamiliar words) Materials: “Dreams” by Langston Hughes Procedure: 1.
Explain what a metaphor is and why writers use it. 2. Pass out copies of “Dreams” by Langston Hughes. Read it aloud. Have students read it silently, and go over vocabulary items that are unfamiliar. 3. Discuss the effect of the poem with the students. Ask them: What does the poem mean to you? How does it make you feel? 4. Ask students to locate the metaphors in the poem. Ask them: What is the purpose of the metaphors? How could you say the same thing without using metaphors? Do you think that metaphors make the image more powerful? 5. Ask the class to give examples of other metaphors. . Have students write their own poems, using the title as a theme (e. g. , the world, football, the class, war, love, etc. ). Using Hughes’ poem as a model for their own, they must include at least two metaphors in their own poem. Dreams Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow. –Langston Hughes ————————————————- Background information for the teacher Langston Hughes was born on February 1, 1902 in Joplin, Missouri.
He was raised by his mother and his grandmother because his parents separated soon after his birth. Around the world, Hughes is recognized as a poet, playwright, novelist, and short story writer. He often wrote about his experiences as a black man, and served as an interpreter of black life in America to the rest of the world. He was often called the “bard of Harlem” because of his attachment to that place and also because of the important role he played in the Harlem Renaissance. Hughes traveled to many parts of the world, including Mexico, Africa, Europe, Japan, Haiti, and the Soviet Union.
He worked as a newspaper correspondent during the Spanish Civil War. Hughes died in New York City on May 22, 1967. Source: The New Encyclopedia Britannica. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 2 Title: Measuring Content: Mathematics and language arts Grade Level: Kindergarten or first grade Author: Nan Allison, Langley Park–McCormick Elementary School, Hyattsville, MD Learning outcomes: using a technique for measuring comparing lengths/heights Vocabulary: measure taller, tallest, shorter, shortest, the same height Materials: drawing paper and crayons balls of yarn scissors masking tape or Scotch tape Procedure: 1.
Working individually, each child draws and colors a picture of himself or herself. 2. In pairs, each child measures partner’s height with yarn and cuts yarn at the proper length. 3. Children attach yarn for their height to the bottom of their own picture. 4. Pictures are hung side by side on the wall. Looking at pictures and lengths of yarn, children answer questions such as: 16. Who is tallest? shortest? 17. Who is taller, Nguyen or Veronica? 18. Are Anna and Bill the same height? 19. How did we measure? 5. Students then rearrange pictures on the wall in order from tallest to shortest (creating a class pictograph).
If desired, the students can line up under the pictures to connect the pictures to the real objects. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 3 Title:Air Content: Science and language arts Grade Level: First grade Author:Jennifer Hixson, Urbana School District #116, Multicultural Program, Urbana, IL Learning outcomes: discovering properties of air 21. Air is something. 22. Air is everywhere, even in some rocks. Science vocabulary: air, bubble(s), space, push ESL vocabulary: Part I: plastic bag, rocks, water Part II: blow(ing), glass, straw, inside, outside Part III: aquarium, glass, paper towel, wet, dry Part IV: rock, sandstone
Materials: Part I: plastic bags, rocks, water Part II: soap bubble solution in small containers, straws Part III: aquarium, glass, paper towels, water, Scotch tape, cut-off gallon plastic jugs, small glasses Part IV: aquarium, water, sandstone rock Procedure for Part I: 1. Show students the empty (and uninflated) plastic bag and have them feel it. 2. Put some rocks in the bag and have students feel it. Ask, “What’s in the bag? ” Repeat, using water. 3. Wave the bag in the air to put air into it. Again, let students feel the bag. Have them name what is in it. 4. Ask, “Is there air in the hallway, (other parts of the school)? Divide students into small groups, give each group a plastic bag, and have them collect air around the school. Tell them to hurry back to the classroom with it. 5. Model how to write up the experiment using pictures and words. Procedure for Part II: 1. Tell students to put their hands on their chests, take a deep breath, and then breathe out. Ask, “What goes in when you breathe in? What goes out when you breathe out? ” 2. Distribute the bubble solution and straws. Have students blow bubbles. Ask, “What is a bubble? ” 3. Draw a bubble on the chalkboard. Ask, “What’s outside the bubble? What’s inside? 4. Have students blow some more bubbles and ask, “What are these bubbles made of? ” 5. Have students help you write up the experiment. Procedure for Part III: 6. Show students the empty glass and the aquarium with water in it. Ask, “What’s in the glass? ” 7. Crumple a piece of paper towel and tape it to the inside of the bottom of the glass. Ask, “If I hold the glass upside down and put it in the water, will the paper get wet? ” 8. Invert the glass and put it into the water. Show students the dry paper and ask, “Why is it dry? ” 9. Repeat the demonstration, this time tipping the glass slightly.
Ask, “What did you see? What are the bubbles made of? Where did the air come from? ” 10. Distribute the cut-off gallon plastic jugs partially filled with water, small glasses, pieces of paper towel, and Scotch tape, and have the students repeat Steps 2 and 3 of the experiment. Write up the experiment with the students. 11. Have the students repeat Step 4. Discuss how the water pushes the air out of the glass, and then write up the experiment with the students. Procedure for Part IV: 12. Show students the sandstone rock. Ask, “Is there air in this rock? ” 13. Put the rock into the aquarium filled with water.
Discuss what the students see and why. 14. Write up the experiment with the students. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 4 Title: Classification Content: Thinking skills and language arts Grade Level: First through third grade Author: Adapted from Oral Language Activities Through Science Discovery, Migrant Education Program, Michigan Department of Education Learning outcomes: 32. learning how to classify objects according to different properties Thinking skills vocabulary: 33. classify, property ESL vocabulary: 34. sort into groups 35. color names: white, black, red, green, blue, etc. 36. izes: large, small, medium sized 37. shapes: round, square, oval, shaped like a (flower, boat, etc. ) Materials: 38. sets of 20 assorted buttons (one set for each group of students) 39. buttons in a set should be similar in some properties, different in others Procedure for Activity 1: 1. Divide students into groups of 4-5, and give each group a set of 20 buttons. 2. Tell the students to sort their buttons into groups in any way they want. 3. Circulate among the groups and, as soon as students have sorted the buttons in one way, ask them: Is there another way that you could sort the buttons? . After some of the students have begun to run out of ideas for sorting the buttons, stop the activity and ask one group: How did you decide which group to put a button into? Ask other groups the same question. 5. Gradually elicit the properties of “color,” “size,” and “shape. ” Explain that these are “properties” and that they are used to “classify” the buttons (sort them into groups). Procedure for Activity 2: 6. Using one of the sets of buttons, spread them out so that all the students can see them. Tell them you are thinking of one particular button and you want them to figure out which button it is. 7.
Give the students the first clue–one property, e. g. , its color. Two students set aside all the buttons that do not have that property. 8. Give the second clue–another property. Two other students eliminate the buttons that do not have the second property. 9. Finally, give the third property. This should eliminate all but one button, thus allowing the students to discover the button you were thinking of. 10. Students can repeat this activity in their groups of 4-5. One student acts as the leader, deciding on a button and giving the clues. The other group members discover which button the leader has chosen. Application: 0. Ask the students what other things they might want to classify using the properties of color, size, and shape. MIDDLE SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 1 Title: Sylvester and the Magic Pebble Content: Language arts Grade Level: Sixth grade Author: Adapted from a lesson by Roxanne Rozales, Joel C. Harris Middle School, San Antonio, TX Learning outcomes: 41. reading and discussing a story 42. identifying the story elements 43. applying knowledge from the story to another situation Vocabulary: 44. ceased, gratitude 45. story elements (setting, characters, plot, conflict, theme, solution/resolution) Materials: 6. Sylvester and the Magic Pebble by William Steig 47. covered can of pebbles Procedure: 1. Before class write the following in chart form on the chalkboard. 48. Setting 49. Characters: Major Minor 50. Action or Plot 51. Problem or Conflict 52. Message or Theme 53. Solution or Resolution 2. Divide students into six groups and assign each a story element. At the end of the story, each group will explain the assigned story element. 3. Display the cover of Sylvester and the Magic Pebble. Ask: 54. What will this story be about? 55. What part of the story do you already know something about? . Read the story aloud and share the pictures. Ask: 56. How many times a day do you say, “I wish I had…? ” 57. What if you could have everything you want? 58. If something bad happened to you, how would your family feel? 5. Allow students to discuss the story elements in groups and then list them on the chalkboard. 6. Have students describe Sylvester’s pebble. Write the adjectives they use on the chalkboard. 7. Have each group select one pebble from the can, and describe it. One student in each group acts as recorder and notes the adjectives selected. 8.
Each student makes a wish and group members take turns writing their wishes. Students discuss their list of wishes and reach a consensus. 9. Students share adjectives and wishes of their group with the rest of the class, and discuss the wishes in terms of the theme of Sylvester and the Magic Pebble. MIDDLE SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 2 Title: Causes of the Civil War Content: U. S. History and language arts Grade Level: Seventh or eighth grade Authors: John Sexton, Sally Frekot, Peggy Kidwell, Sandy Giles, Nicholas Orem Middle School, Hyattsville, MD This lesson was designed as a follow-up to a unit on the Civil War.
Learning outcomes: 59. analyzing and synthesizing written source materials 60. explaining cause and effect Materials: 61. students’ notes on the causes of the Civil War (from preceding study unit) 62. sample cartoons (preferably with a historical reference) clipped from newspapers or magazines 63. blackline drawings of well known comic strip characters 64. blank cartoon strip with six panels Procedure: 1. In a warm-up discussion, talk with students about the types of television programs that are watched by younger children (e. g. , second graders). 2.
Show students sample cartoons, pointing out how the sequence of the panels presents the story line of the cartoon. 3. Students use their notes on causes of the Civil War to write up a presentation in cartoon form that would be appropriate for second graders. To show what kind of product you may expect, the following is an example of a cartoon produced by a student (language unedited): Panel 1: The southers states believed that they could make any law they want. Panel 2: Lincoln who didn’t like slavery was elected president. Panel 3: South Carolina and other states left the union and picked their own government.
Panel 4: Lincoln said he wouldn’t let them go. Panel 5: Confederate forces attacked South Carolina. Panel 6: This was how the war started. MIDDLE SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 3 Title: Predicting Population Change Content: Mathematics and language arts Grade Level: Sixth grade Learning outcomes: 65. using the language of graphs 66. making graphs 67. writing about population trends, supported by appropriate graph(s) ESL vocabulary: 68. population shift, growth, decline, trend 69. comparative adjectives 70. predicting words (may, might, probably, likely to, etc. ) 71. ny necessary words from the newspaper article that you will use Mathematics vocabulary: 72. percent, will increase/decrease by __%, rate of change 73. graph words: peak, low point, rise by/to, fall by/to, x-axis, y-axis Materials: 74. a graph of population changes (can be for a country, a region, the world) 75. newspaper article that presents population statistics of your town or state over at least the last 20 years, for every five years 76. graph paper Procedure: 1. Examine a population graph with the students. Discuss its features. 77. What does it show? 8. What does the x-axis represent? The y-axis? 79. In what year did the population reach a peak? What was the low point? 80. Has the population increased or decreased over the last twenty/ten/five years? 81. In (choose a year), had the population gone up or down compared to (year)? 82. What was the rate of change between (year) and (year)? 2. Have students read an article that gives population growth/decline statistics of your town or state over the past twenty years (or more). 3. Discuss what a graph should look like to present this information. 83. What should we call the graph? 4. What does it show? 85. What should we write along the x axis? the y axis? During the discussion, begin the drawing of a graph on the chalkboard. 4. Have the students work in pairs to complete the graphs. 5. As students work, check to make sure that they are correctly drawing and filling in the graphs. Further application: 6. Have students write a paragraph predicting future population trends for the city or state over the next twenty years. They must be able to support their predictions, based on past trends, future development, and/or other factors in the community. 7.
Have them show their predictions by extending the graph they made in Step 4 above. MIDDLE SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 4 Title: Sensory Perceptions Content: Science and language arts Grade Level: Sixth and seventh grades Author: Adapted from a science lesson, Benjamin Franklin Middle School, San Francisco, CA Learning objectives: 86. describing properties detected by looking, feeling, smelling, and tasting 87. using similes: looks like, tastes like, etc. Vocabulary: 88. appearance, aroma, texture, taste 89. solid, liquid, powdery, dry, hard, soft, wet, sweet, sour, bland, etc.
Materials: 90. dry split peas, powdered sugar, chocolate syrup, lemon juice Put a small amount of each in a paper cup. Number of cups needed depends on number of student groups. Four groups of students can share one set of four cups, working with each of the four foods in turn. 91. worksheets containing table to be completed by students | |Peas |Sugar |Syrup |Juice | |Appearance | | | | |Aroma | | | | | |Texture | | | | | |Taste | | | | | |Simile | | | | |
Procedure: 1. Divide class into groups of 4-5 students. Give each group a cup containing one of the foods. 2. Ask them to find adjectives to describe the appearance, aroma, texture, and taste of the food. They should fill in the table as they decide on the adjectives, thinking of as many adjectives as they can. 3. After five minutes, each group exchanges their cup with another group. Repeat Step 2 until every group has described all four foods. 4. Debrief the activity by calling on the groups one by one to help you fill in a copy of the table which you have put on the chalkboard. 5.
With the students again working in groups, ask them to write a simile for each of the foods. For example, “The sugar feels like ____. ” “The juice tastes like ___. ” Call on groups at random to read their similes aloud. HIGH SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 1 Title: “The River Merchant’s Wife: A Letter” Content: Language arts Grade Level: Tenth through twelfth grades Author: Adapted from a lesson by Lydia Stack, Newcomer High School, San Francisco, CA Learning outcomes: 92. reading and discussing two poems 93. comparing marriage customs in 8th century China and in the contemporary United States 94. riting a poem Vocabulary: 95. poems’ vocabulary (see poems attached) 96. marriage words (marry, bride, groom, etc. ) Materials: 97. an 8th century Chinese print 98. two poems (“The River Merchant’s Wife: A Letter” and “I Have Lived and I Have Loved,” attached) Procedure: 1. Show the students a Chinese print, preferably from the 8th century A. D. Ask them: 99. What can you see here? 100. How does the scene make you feel? 101. What does the picture tell you about the culture which produced it? 2. Tell the students the title of the poem.
Ask them: 102. What do you think this poem is about? 103. What would you like to know about this topic? 104. Why do you think the author chose this title? 3. Read “The River Merchant’s Wife” to the students as they follow along. Guide their understanding of the text with questions: 105. What will happen now? Why do you think so? 106. What would you like to ask (this character)? 4. Divide the students into four groups and ask each group to retell the story from a different point of view: the wife, the husband, the wife’s mother-in-law, and the moss. . Using a Venn Diagram (two partially overlapping circles), have them compare marriage customs in 8th century China and the contemporary U. S. You may also want them to compare contemporary customs in the city and the country. 6. Read “I Have Lived and I Have Loved” aloud to the students. Write the poem on the chalkboard but delete certain words (you decide). As you read it again, pause before each deletion. Have the students brainstorm appropriate fillers. If the deletion comes at the end of a line, make sure the filler obeys the poem’s rhyme scheme. 7.
Ask the students to write poems of their own. Give them a simple scheme, such as the one in “I Have Lived… ” Ask them to write about the theme of love and loss and resolution. The River Merchant’s Wife: A Letter While my hair was still cut straight across my forehead I played about the front gate, pulling flowers. You came by on bamboo stilts, playing horse, You walked about my seat, playing with blue plums. And we went on living in the village of Chokan: Two small people, without dislike or suspicion. At fourteen I married My Lord you. I never laughed, being bashful.
Lowering my head, I looked at the wall. Called to, a thousand times, I never looked back. At fifteen I stopped scowling. I desired my dust to be mingled with yours. Forever and forever and forever. Why should I climb the lookout? At sixteen you departed. You went into far Ku-to-en, by the river of swirling eddies, And you have been gone five months. And the monkeys make sorrowful noise overhead. You dragged your feet when you went out. By the gate now, the moss is grown, the different mosses. Too deep to clear them away! The leaves fall early this autumn, in wind.
The paired butterflies are already yellow with August Over the grass in the West garden; They hurt me. I grow older. If you are coming down through the narrows of the river Kiang, Please let me know beforehand, And I will come out to meet you As far as Cho-fu-Sa. –Ezra Pound, 1885-1972, after Li Po, 705-762 I Have Lived and I Have Loved I have lived and I have loved; I have waked and I have slept; I have sung and I have danced; I have smiled and I have wept; I have won and wasted treasure; I have had my fill of pleasure; And all these things were weariness,
And some of them were dreariness. And all these things–but two things Were emptiness and pain; And Love–it was the best of them; And Sleep–worth all the rest of them. –Anonymous HIGH SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 2 Title: A Laboratory Activity: The Unknown Shapes of Atoms Content: Science and language arts Grade Level: Tenth grade Author: Joni Lynn Grisham, Pittsburg High School, Pittsburg, CA Learning outcomes: 107. discovering how scientists made a model of an atom without ever seeing one Science vocabulary: 108. shape words (round, square, triangular, etc. 109. atom, molecule, nucleus 110. prove/proof, hypothesize/hypothesis, estimate, evidence ESL vocabulary: 111. marble, plywood, shoot/roll (the marble) 112. follow the path (of the marble) Materials: 113. several pieces of plywood about 2 ft. X 2 ft. 114. one geometrically shaped wood block about 5 inches in diameter or length and 1 1/2 to 2 inches wide glued to the back of each piece of plywood 115. one sheet of paper taped onto the front (upper face) of each piece of plywood 116. one marble per piece of plywood 117. one pencil per piece of plywood
Procedure: 1. Divide students into groups of two or three. 2. Place the plywood pieces on the floor, the side with the glued-on block facing down so that it can’t be seen. 3. One student shoots the marble into the center of the piece of plywood. 4. A second student traces the path of the marble under the plywood by drawing a line on the paper from the point where the marble enters to where it exits. 5. Students take turns shooting the marble all around the piece of plywood until they feel they can hypothesize the shape of the wood block that is under the plywood. It is wise to give them a time limit of about three minutes. ) 6. Students draw the shape of the wood block in one corner of the paper. (If you want students to complete the activity using more than one of the plywood pieces, have each group remove the paper they used and replace it with another sheet of paper. Rotate groups until students have completed the procedure several times, having groups compare their findings. ) 7. Ask the groups questions about their results, such as: 118. How did you come to a decision about the shape under the piece of plywood? 19. Name two other ways we can see items which are hidden from view. 120. What would scientists do to prove their hypothesis to others? 8. Have students write a description of the procedure they used to discover the shape. HIGH SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 3 Title: Understanding Powers of Ten Content: Mathematics and language arts Grade Level: Ninth and tenth grades Author: Adapted from a lesson by James Redos, Montgomery Blair High School, Silver Spring, MD Learning outcomes: 121. defining prefixes 122. defining “powers of ten” 123. completing a patterned list Vocabulary: 24. kilometer, hectometer, dekameter, meter, decimeter, centimeter, millimeter Materials: 125. chalkboard Procedure: 1. Review the reasons why people find it necessary and useful to measure. Ask students: 126. Why do we want to measure? 127. What do we want to measure? 128. How do we measure in science? 129. Where else do we need to measure? 130. What does the size “X Large” mean? 131. I have a shirt of the size 17 1/2, 34. What does each number mean? 132. What about pants size 36 X 32? 133. How do people measure gasoline in the United States?
In South America? In (other countries)? 2. Review the basis for the metric system: powers of ten. Ask: 134. How do I measure the distance from here (point to shoulder) to the floor? 135. What is the standard metric unit of length? 136. What do we get when we subdivide the meter stick into ten pieces? Into 100 pieces? Into 1000 pieces? 3. Introduce “powers of ten”: 137. Write 102 on the chalkboard and explain that the expression means there are two tens which must be multiplied together, or ten squared. Write (10 X 10) on the chalkboard. 138.
Write 103 and ask a student to explain what it means. 139. Continue with expressions for negative powers of ten as well. 4. Write the words in the following patterned list on the chalkboard and have students add the numerical expressions to complete it. 1000 meters=1 kilometer(Students write 103) 100 meters=1 hectometer 10 meters=1 dekameter 1 meter 0. 1 meter=1 decimeter 0. 01 meter= 1 centimeter 0. 001 meter=1 millimeter HIGH SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 4 Title: Explaining Exclusive State Powers Content: U. S. Government and language arts Grade Level: Tenth through twelfth grades
Author: Adapted from a lesson by Joseph Bellino, Montgomery Blair High School, Silver Spring, MD Learning outcomes: 140. reading and discussing a passage from the class textbook 141. reviewing “exclusive federal powers” 142. defining and giving examples of “exclusive state powers” 143. defining and giving examples of “concurrent powers” Vocabulary: 144. exclusive powers, concurrent powers, levy and collect taxes, make and enforce laws, set standards, determine voter qualifications, conduct elections, govern marriage and divorce laws, govern school laws Materials: 45. pages 101 and 102 of Government Packets for ESOL Students (social studies textbook produced for ESL students in Montgomery County, MD) 146. three overhead transparencies (OHT) with drawings illustrating: 147. #1 – exclusive federal powers 148. #2 – exclusive state powers 149. #3 – concurrent powers Procedure: 1. Review the exclusive federal powers. 150. Divide students into three groups. Ask: What does “exclusive federal power” mean? 151. Display OHT #1, point to one illustration and have one group identify the exclusive federal power it represents.
Provide students with one or more examples of the power and encourage them to add others. 152. Repeat the procedure for each illustration in OHT #1. 2. Introduce exclusive state powers. 153. Have a student read aloud page 101 (discussion of exclusive state powers). 154. Ask students to explain in their own words the powers that are described. 155. Display OHT #2, point to one illustration (e. g. , picture of someone voting), and have one group identify the exclusive state power it illustrates. Ask: Does who can vote change from state to state? 56. Ask: What else can change from state to state? If I get married in Maryland, may I get a divorce in another state? 157. Continue with similar questions to elicit remaining exclusive state powers. 3. Introduce concurrent powers. 158. Have a student read aloud page 102 (discussion of concurrent powers). 159. Ask students to explain in their own words the powers that are described. 160. Display OHT #3 and have students refer to the text to explain each of the illustrations and the concurrent powers they represent.
Give an example of each and have students provide additional examples which explain their experiences and knowledge of each power. 4. Review of all three categories of powers. 161. Display the OHTs in mixed order and have students write the name of the category of powers represented. Check responses. 162. Divide students into three groups. Each group works up a brief skit which illustrates one of the three categories of powers. (Skit will be presented in next class meeting. ) Return to Content-ESL Table of Contents.