Sassen ( 1991 ) ‘s reading of the term ‘Global City ‘ is based on the earlier construct of ‘World Cities ‘ which have been classified as per their multiple functions:
- Serving as Centre of national and international political power and of the administrations associating to the authorities ;
- Serving as Centre of national and international trade
- Serving as Centre of fiscal services like banking and insurance ;
- Serving as Centre of different types of advanced professional activity ;
- Serving as Centre of information assemblage and distribution ;
- Serving as Centre of conspicuous ingestion ;
- Serving Centre of civilization, humanistic disciplines, amusement ( Hall, 1966 ) .
Harmonizing to Friedmann, the ‘spatial articulation ‘ of a metropolis implies its function as a Centre through which there is a flow of money, trade goods and information, therefore jointing economic dealingss between the environing parts and the planetary economic system. Friedmann suggests that this spacial articulation is responsible for distinguishing the metropoliss as planetary ( New York ) , transnational ( Miami ) , national ( Mexico City ) or sub-national/regional ( San Francisco ) . Sassen ( 1991 ) points out the difference between planetary and universe metropoliss: wherein planetary metropoliss are described as being a recent merchandise of the globalization processes. In planetary metropoliss, new engineerings like telecommunications have led to the de-centralisation of economic activities. Sassen suggests that the planetary metropoliss form a ‘virtual economic rhythm ‘ in four ways:
a ) “The demand for control creates metropoliss as ‘command points ‘
B ) This creates a demand for finance & A ; concern services and metropoliss become the ‘key locations ‘ for the prima economic sectors
degree Celsius ) Cities become sites of production & A ; invention for these taking economic sectors
vitamin D ) Cities constitute markets for taking economic sector production” ( Sassen, 1991 )
Harmonizing to Sassen, New York, London and Tokyo are taking illustrations of planetary metropoliss they serve more than merely bid centres, instead they are the first ‘global service centres ‘ in urban history.
Hall ( 1995a and B ) has added to the definition and incorporated the effects of the progressive displacement of developed economic systems from goods production to information handling. With production centres scattering worldwide, services are progressively acquiring concentrated into a few trading metropoliss. Such metropoliss attract specialised trade services like commercial jurisprudence and accounting, public dealingss, advertisement, and legal services. These metropoliss besides attract concern touristry and existent estate maps thereby impacting on the communicating, transit, and personal services and amusement sectors.
Kevin O’Connor ( 2005 ) suggests that planetary metropoliss have the new position of looking beyond the traditional ( Friedmann ) accent on power, laterality and control as was measured by the commercial service activity and figure out new of associating with each other. O’Connor stresses on the importance of purchasing and merchandising of services as a important portion of universe trade and hence planetary metropolis linkages. O’Connor cites Melbourne as a premier illustration of a ‘knowledge-based ‘ economic system hiking the metropolis ‘s planetary linkages.
Since there is no concrete definition of a ‘Global City ‘ , hence such a metropolis can be identified on the footing of some of import properties that are normally agreed upon by assorted schools of idea. From an economic position, planetary metropoliss are a consequence of the procedures back uping economic and concern activities that are progressively being carried out at the international degree and the progressive displacement of developed economic systems from goods production to information processing ( Ley et al. , 2006 ) .
The followers can be herewith labeled as the alone attributes a metropolis must possess to be known as a planetary metropolis:
- national and international trade, entry-points for their states and besides sometimes for neighbouring states ;
- service of and co-ordination with international economic systems ;
- specialised services like banking, insurance, accounting ; commercial jurisprudence, advertisement, public dealingss, concern touristry, transit and communications,
- specialised personal services providing to third instruction, amusement, civilization and humanistic disciplines
- -suitably developed professional activities information assemblage and distribution, cognition and creativeness taking to the production of new goods and services which feeds straight into trade internally and globally.
Furthermore, planetary metropoliss can be said to be characterised by:
- lifting demand for employment in the above mentioned sectors ;
- lifting importance in the purchasing and merchandising of services as portion of universe trade
- conspicuous ingestion ;
- polarised work forces with turning degrees of spacial and cultural segregation.
- first-class substructure in footings of telecommunications, transit, amusement and information industries – requirements for most globally competitory houses.
- a stimulating puting for information, cognition and creativeness which causes production of new services and goods
- a flow of money, workers, information and goods that link economic dealingss internally and globally
Another inquiry that may originate in labeling a metropolis as ‘global ‘ is its size. Does size affair when sing the construct of Global Cities? That is does the size of a metropolis and the administration responsible for administrating it affair? When applied to metropoliss, size, as measured by population and resources ( and the ability to marshal resources ) frequently equates to power and influence. But influence is non dependent on size or place. In this context, a metropolis ‘s influence can be viewed as the extent to which the thoughts it generates are adopted by other metropoliss. Size helps, but size does non guarantee a metropolis has influence. Even little metropoliss can take by illustration, that is, influence others by showing invention in the manner they are managed and the quality of their properties for life and working ( Ley et al. , 2006 ) .
After holding outlined the specific properties of a ‘global metropolis ‘ , we now discuss the instance of Seoul, an emerging planetary metropolis in South East Asia.
Seoul, the capital of South Korea, houses some 255,000 aliens from 152 states ( Courtesy of Seoul Metropolitan Government ) . Today, Seoul is a planetary metropolis that is endeavoring to spread out its planetary nature. There is a important presence of foreign occupants in Seoul ‘s over-10 million populations and the Korean authorities is actively working on doing the metropolis more comfy for life and for concern activities, guaranting that there are no barriers associating to nationality, race or civilization. There are besides ongoing betterments in the substructure for both fiscal centres and leisure facilities.The figure of occupants in Seoul has jumped five-fold in the decennary 1998-2007. Of all the different nationalities, the bulk is that of the Chinese who form three quarters of the entire population of 193,000. The Americans form the 2nd largest cultural group at 12,800, with Chinese, Nipponese and Vietnamese being the immediate followings.
A study was conducted on 1,000 aliens populating in Seoul which revealed that emigres depicted a more positive attitude towards their life environment than Seoul indigens. This is a direct result of metropolis ‘s attempt to break the quality of life for the foreign communities populating in Seoul.
Furthermore, Seoul has designated ‘Global Zones ‘ that provide countries free of linguistic communication barrier in the metropolis, to do things more comfy for foreigners.These zones include Global Cultural Exchange Zones, Global Village Zones and Global Business Zones. The Seoul Global Center ( GSC ) with its location on the 3rd floor of the Seoul Press Center edifice which is near Gwanghwamun, acts as a control tower to pull off the planetary small town centres in countries with heavy foreign population.
In add-on, Seoul besides has been keeping ‘Town Meetings ‘ since 2000, interchanging ideas and thoughts with foreign residents.For illustration, in the April 2008 meeting, the metropolis collected suggestions on medical services. The foreign occupants made some ailments on the deficient accounts about wellness insurance for exiles. Therefore, the metropolis explained how foreign occupants could besides utilize the National Health Insurance and see all major infirmaries where they are entitled for coverage by abroad wellness insurance.
The five Global Village ZonesSeorae Village, Yeonnam, Ichon, Itaewon-Hannam and Yeoksam have been designed to supply administrative convenience and support, manage aliens ‘ communities and organize events and multicultural talks for exiles. About 300 foreign occupants go to these centres to have aid.
Looking at the popularity of these centres, the metropolis has decided to set up more multicultural small town centres in order to fit the demands of migratory workers and their multicultural households. The first such centres have opened in Yeongdeungpo and Seongbuk-gu.
The SGC has besides moved into the planetary bunch edifice, and its building is traveling to be completed in 2012. This 14-story edifice will provide to the demands of migrators populating in Seoul. The staff members talking English, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese and other linguistic communications will help with investing advice and other jobs. Other installations will include conferences suites for both Koreans and aliens, a library, medical centres for exiles, and galleries and theatres.
A metropolis functionary mentioned, “Facilities for aliens will be divided into those for foreign business communities and for immigrant workers and multicultural households, nevertheless, the planetary bunch edifice will supply an incorporate service for any exiles in Seoul” ( Mee-yoo, 2009 ) .
In Seoul ‘s Yeouido many banking establishments are situated, and so it is being developed as one of the most of import fiscal hubs in Northeast Asia. This country has been designated as the Yeouido fiscal territory and building work of the Seoul International Finance Center is in advancement. Yeouido has besides been selected as the Global Business Zone which offers administrative services in foreign linguistic communications. The metropolis has programs for induing the country with schools, medical installations and day care centres entirely for aliens.
There are other Global Business Zones, viz. , the Korea World Trade Center in Samsung-dong, LG Tower country in Yeoksam-dong and the City Hall locality. SH Corporation is a city-affiliated company making lodging undertakings and has built DMC Ville, a rental flat reserved merely for exiles in the Sangam country. Better instruction services are besides being provided to promote foreign business communities to convey along their households and kids
About 20 aliens ‘ school are already runing in Seoul and three more will be added to the metropolis by 2012. Sangam DMC will be the new location for the Nipponese school soon situated in Gaepo, southern Seoul. There is proposal of opening new schools every twelvemonth in August get downing from Banpo following twelvemonth followed by Sangam and Gaepo in the following back-to-back old ages.
As a consequence of all these enterprises by Seoul ‘s disposal, the metropolis ‘s globalization position is bettering and is reflected in assorted indexes.In the Global Cities Index, 2008, Seoul ranked 9th among 60 major universe metropoliss as rated by magazine Foreign Policy and confer withing house A.T. Kearney.
Harmonizing to Foreign Policy this index constitutes of the biggest and most interrelated metropoliss of the universe. These metropoliss are actively involved in planetary issues such as clime alteration, and act as the karyon of planetary integrating. Its rankings are based upon an rating in five chief countries ? human capital, concern activity, cultural experience, political battle and information exchange.Other metropoliss on the list include Hong Kong, Tokyo and New York.
In 2008, Seoul stood at the 35th place among 76 metropoliss in the Global Financial Centers Index ( GFCI ) . The GFCI is conducted twice a twelvemonth in March and September under the counsel of the Z/Yen Group and the City of London Corporation. Its superior determines the places of metropoliss in the universe as a fiscal centre. The 35th place makes Seoul at the 8th place in the Asia. In the yesteryear, Seoul secured rather low grads by the GFCI, including 58th. This made the metropolis put more attempts on going a fiscal power and raising its international prestigiousness. Its purpose was to procure a nice ranking in the GFCI. Consequently, metropolis functionaries promoted the economic environment of the capital metropolis by administering booklets to domestic every bit good as international moneymans and publicising facts of the economic environment in fiscal magazines. The authorities assured the people that its attempts were non merely for the well being of aliens but besides a part towards the overall growing of the capital, therefore doing Seoul a genuinely planetary metropolis.