Science 6 1884 at the age of 61

   Science discovery                                   Projekt                 Jacob 7C                                                                Gregor MendelThe scientist that I picked is Gregor Mendel, his full name was Gregor Johann Mendel. Gregor Johann Mendel was born on July 22, 1822, to his parents Anton and Rosine Mendel, on his family’s farm, in what was then Heinzendorf, Austria in Czech Republic today. He grew up in the countryside of Austria. When he was 11 years a teacher of his was impressed with his learning so he got sent to a secondary school in Troppau. He graduated from the school in 1840 with honors. He then went on a two year program at the Philosophical Institute of the University of Olmütz. He suffered from deep bouts of depression, but he made it and graduated in 1843.  When he had finished school he went against his father’s will and became a monk instead of taking over the family farm. He got ill at the place he was a monk at so he got sent to a to fill a temporary teaching position in Znaim. In 1853 he went back to the monastery in Brno and was given a teaching position at a secondary school. It was at this secondary school he did the experiments he is most famous for, the experiments on the pea plants. Gregor died January 6 1884 at the age of 61 also in Czech Republic. When he died his work, however, was still very unknown.Mendel discovered the science of genetics. He experimented and worked with pea plants in the monastery in Brno, where he spent 14 years in, and he discovered the fundamental laws of inheritance (genetics). He kept on experimented and found out that the DNA is equally divided from both parents. Mendel discovered the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes in pea plants, this is called law of segregation. His studies was confirmed decades later and now we refer to the studies as Mendel’s Laws. Mendel also has a nickname you can say, many biologists refrér to him as “father of modern genetics”.He used the pea plants instead of mice which was common at the time to experiment on. He practised on pea plants because they are so easy to control. He discovered principles of inheritance by crossing almost identical plants that only had one or two different characteristics. He took the offsprings of the pea plants and then crossed them.By doing this he learned that inheritance of characteristics did not go as the biology laws of that time supposed. For example he took a long pea plant and a short one, when he crossed those he did not get a plant of medium height which he expected but a plant that also was high. He did this with different kind of characteristics and found out what we still call the laws of Mendel. A easy way of explaining the laws is that for the first, our genetic characteristics come in pair of twos that is why the pea plant in the example written above did became high because it got two pair of high characteristics and not something between. The second part of his law is that though parents contribute equally to the inheritance of offspring the inheritance can be resting in one or two offsprings and then come back in the next generation. That is how we also have the knowledge of dominant genes and how inheritance works for plants, animals  and human beings. Now when I have wrote this I know how my eye colour is not the same as my mom or dads, but my little sister has my dads eye colour.Mendel’s discovery is a discovery in the field biology in science and was the ground for the molecular discoveries. His discovery in genetics and the law of segregation originally created in 1865 – 1866 was recreated in 1900 of many different biologist and they had the same result as Mendel got. Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns and Erich von Tschermak-Seysenegg each independently duplicated Mendel’s experiments and results in 1900, finding out after the fact, allegedly, that both the data and the general theory had been published in 1866 by Mendel. Although this was often marginalized by many Darwinians who claimed that his findings were irrelevant to a theory of evolution The word genetics was only coined in 1906 for the new science of heredity. They grounded the new methods and reachers of Mendel’s theory. And it was in 1950 that DNA was discovered and the more advanced theory of chromosomes. And Mendel’s researches and studies was the beginning of molecular biology that means that because of Mendel’s discovery it made other scientist test and work further with chromosomes and cells and molecules. The mendel theory of genetics has of course a big impact on mankind because Mendel’s  discovery is about we use it today to track old family members and their genetics and characteristics. His theory is  used in different patterns. Doctors uses Mendel’s theory to prevent diseases that goes in the family like diabeetus and cancer. So thanks to Mendel we can today prevent millions of people to get serious diseases. And bear in mind that he discovered this in the 1800 but we still use the same theory that he did.