Selective mutism (SM) is an anxiety disorder that prevents children speaking in certain social situations, such as school lessons or in public. However, they’re able to speak freely to close family and friends when nobody else is listening – for example, when they’re at home. It’s important to understand that when the mutism happens, the child is not voluntarily refusing to speak but is literally unable to speak, feeling frozen. In time, they learn to anticipate the situations that provoke mutism and do all they can to avoid them. Experts believe SM is a phobia of talking.
Most children will work their way through SM with sympathetic support, although they may remain reserved and anxious in social situations. Which children are affected?
SM is relatively rare, affecting one in 150 children. Most primary schools will know of at least one child with SM. It’s more common in girls and children of ethnic minority populations, or in those who have recently migrated from their country of birth. When does it start?
SM usually occurs in early childhood and is first noticed when the child begins to interact outside the family circle – for example, when they start nursery or school. It can last a few months but, if left untreated, can continue into adulthood. What are the signs?
Children with SM often have other fears and social anxieties and may have additional speech and language difficulties. They may not be able to give you eye contact and may seem:
uneasy and socially awkward
excessively shy and withdrawn, dreading that they will be expected to speak serious
stubborn or aggressive, having temper tantrums when they get home from school frozen and expressionless during periods they cannot talk
Children with SM may communicate using gestures – for example, nodding or shaking their head to get their message across. They may manage to respond
with a word or two, or speak in an altered voice, such as a whisper. Some children with SM also have a fear of using public toilets – perhaps because they fear making sounds while urinating that others may hear. What causes selective mutism?
It’s not always clear what causes some children to develop SM, although it is thought to occur as the result of anxiety. The child will usually have inherited a tendency to experience anxiety from a family member. Some children have trouble processing sensory information such as loud noise and jostling from crowds – a condition known as sensory integration dysfunction. This makes them “shut down” and unable to speak. Many children become very distressed when separated from their parents and transfer this anxiety to the adults who try to settle them into a new setting. If they have a speech and language disorder or hearing problem, this only makes speaking even more stressful. There is no evidence to suggest that children with SM are more likely to have suffered abuse, neglect or trauma than any other child. When mutism occurs as a symptom of post-traumatic stress it follows a very different pattern and the child suddenly stops talking in environments where they previously had no difficulty. However, this type of speech withdrawal may lead to SM if the triggers are not addressed and the child develops a more general anxiety about communication. Another common misconception is that a selectively mute child is controlling or manipulative, or that the child has autism. There is no relationship between SM and autism, although the two conditions can occur in the same child. What can parents do?
If left untreated, SM can lead to isolation, low self-esteem and social anxiety disorder. It can persist into adolescence and even adulthood if not tackled. With diagnosis at a young age and appropriate management, children can successfully overcome this disorder. SM needs to be recognised early by families and schools so that they can work together to reduce the child’s anxiety. Staff in early years settings and schools are increasingly seeking training so they are ready to provide appropriate support. Getting a diagnosis
If you suspect your child has SM and help is not available, or if there are
additional concerns, for example if your child struggles to understand instructions or follow routines, seek a formal diagnosis from a qualified speech and language therapist. Approach your nearest speech and language therapy clinic or speak to your health visitor or GP, who can refer you. Do not accept the assurance that your child will grow out of it. Older children may also need to see a mental health professional or school educational psychologist. The clinician may initially wish to talk to you without your child present, so you can speak freely about any anxieties you have about your child’s development or behaviour. The clinician will want to find out if anxiety disorders are present in your family, and if there is anything in your child’s life causing them significant distress, such as divorce or difficulty learning a second language. They will look at your child’s behavioural characteristics and take their full medical history. Your child may not be able to speak during their assessment, but the clinician will be prepared for this and try to find another medium of communication. For example, children may be encouraged to communicate through parents, or older children may be invited to write down responses or use a computer. SM must be diagnosed according to specific guidelines. These include observations that: your child does not speak in specific situations, such as school lessons or when they can be overheard in public your child can speak normally in situations in which they feel comfortable, such as being alone with you at home or in an empty classroom their inability to speak interferes with their ability to function in that setting their inability to speak has lasted for at least two months
their inability to speak is not better explained by another behavioural, mental or communication disorder