The words that are in parade somatic relations and may be substituted in a phrase can be presented in a vertical line: The person became uncomfortable The boy turned uneasy Paradigmatic relations are the most fundamental for the organization of the lexicon and they are very diverse. Two Major Groups of Paradigmatic Relations of Words: 1. The relations of compatibility synonymy antonyms incompatibility 2. The relations of inclusion, or hierarchical relations hypos memory serial relations 2. Synonyms.
Criteria of synonymy. Classification of synonyms. The dominant synonym.Euphemisms Synonymy is confined to semantic relations between words only. Similar relations between word-groups and sentences are described as semantic CEQ valence.
. G. John is taller than Bill.
Bill is shorter than John. To win a victory -? to gain a victory. Synonyms are traditionally described as words different in sound-form but identical or similar in meaning. Critical Points of This Definition: 1 . It cannot be applied to polytheistic words as they cannot be synonymous in all their meanings. To look at SMB – see, watch, observe; to look pale – seem, appear. 2.It is impossible to speak of identity or similarity of lexical meaning as a whole as it is only the denotation component that may be described as identical.
To die, to pass away -? the connotative component is quite different; to die, to walk, to smile – identical in their stylistic reference, but they are not synonyms. 3. Cases of complete synonymy are rather rare and can be found only in terms (e. G. Aspirant – fricative).
Synonyms are words different in sound-form but similar in their denotation meaning or meanings. Attempts have been made to introduce the criterion of interchangeability in linguistic contexts, I. . The words are synonymous if either of them can occur in the same context.
There are no complete synonyms. Buy, purchase – similar in meaning, but different in their stylistic reference and are not completely interchangeable: purchasing department (not buying department), to buy (and not to purchase) a pound of butter. Synonyms: words different in their sound-form, but similar in their denotation meaning or meanings and interchangeable at least In some contexts. The only existing classification of synonyms was established by academician V. V.Vindicator: ideographic (words differ in their denotation meaning); e. .
To walk, to pace, to stroll, to stride stylistic (words differ in the convocational meaning); e. G. Hearty, cordial; post, mail Types of synonyms: 1 . Absolute synonyms – have exactly the same meaning and belong to the same style to moan, to groan; homeland, motherland. 2. Semantic synonyms – they appear due to decentralization, when one of the absolute synonyms can specialize in its meaning. City (French borrowing) – specialized in its meaning – a large important town; town (native) -? smaller than a city, larger than a village. .
Titlists – appear when one of the absolute synonyms is specialized in its usage. To begin (native) – to commence (French, rather formal). 4.
Slang synonyms head – attic, nut, upper storey; mad – daft, potty, loony, touched, nutty. 5. Pharmacological synonyms – words identical in their meaning and style, but different in their communicability with other words in the sentence. To be late for the lecture but to miss the train; to attend lectures but to visit museums. 6. Contextual synonyms – similar in meaning only under some specific distributional conditions. Bear, to stand, to suffer – are not synonyms and cannot substitute each other, except when used in the negative form: I can’t stand = I can’t bear.
Dominant Synonym: a word whose meaning is equal to the denotation common to the entire synonymic group to surprise – to astonish, to amaze, to puzzle, to strike; to shout – to yell, to roar; to shine – to flash, to sparkle. Features of the Dominant Synonym: high frequency of usage; broad communicability, I. E. The ability to be used in combinations with various classes of words; broad general meaning; lack of connotationsThere are words in every language which people instinct’s avoid because they are considered indecent, rude, and too direct. These referents are described in a round-about way, by using substitutes called euphemisms.
Euphemisms: 1. Social taboos. Lavatory – powder room, washroom, restroom, retiring room, comfort station, ladies’ or gentleman’s room. Pregnancy – in an interesting position, in a delicate condition, in the family way, with a baby coming. 2. Superstitious taboos – people believed that there was a supernatural link between a name and the object it represented.
Ungenerous animal – the one-lurking-in-the- wood; a mortal disease – the black death. The Christian religion also made certain words taboo. Devil – the Prince of Darkness, the black one, the evil one, dickens, old Nick. God – Good Lord! By Heavens! My Goodness! A mad man: – insane, mentally unstable, unbalanced, not quite right (formal); – wrong in the upper storey, crazy as a bedbug, off one’s nut (slang). 3.
Antonyms. Classifications Of antonyms Antonyms: are words characterized by semantic polarity or opposite meaning.The term “opposite meaning” is rather vague: mind -? gentle, showing love, sympathy for others; cruel – taking pleasure in giving pain to others. Antonyms: words different in sound-form and characterized by different types of semantic contrast of denotation meaning and interchangeability at least in some contexts V. N. Commissars: absolute or root antonyms – have different roots (late -? early); derivation – have the same roots, but different affixes (to please – to displease, honest dishonest). Classification of Antonyms: 1.
Contradictoriness.To use one of the words is to contradict the other and to use “not” before one Of them is to make it semantically equivalent to the other. Not dead-?alive, not single-?married. Among contradictoriness we find a subgroup of words of the type young – old, big – small: to say “not young’ is not necessarily “old”. They are generic terms for the common quality: size, age, etc. 2. Contraries. Differ from the contradictoriness: contradictoriness admit no possibility between them.
One is either single or married, but contraries admit such possibilities. Cold – hot, cool and warm are intermediate members.Contraries may be opposed to each other by the absence or presence of nee of the components of meaning like sex or age. Man – woman, man boy. 3. Conversions -? name a situation from different, opposing points of view to buy – to sell; to win – to lose. memory, serial relations Hypos: a semantic relation of inclusion.
Car, bus, taxi – vehicle; oak, pine – tree; horse, cow – animal. The hypotonic relationship: the hierarchical relationship between the meaning of the general and individual terms. The more specific term is called the hypo. The more general term is called the hypertrophy or the classifier.