So immersive development knowledge, workflow integration, or

So when looking at illustration 15 one can identify that augmented
reality is currently positioned in the ‘Through of Disillusionment’ (Walker
2017, p. 61) where interest is declining as experiments and implementations
fail to deliver. The problem with AR up to now is that there still exist
discrepancies between what a vendor promises to deliver and what capabilities
are available to deliver. According to the report, the reasons behind this are “… poor implementations (for
example, solutions delivered without immersive development knowledge, workflow
integration, or mapped-to-business value or need) and lack of standards
(interoperability, content production, frameworks, etc.) …” (as cited in Walker
2017, p. 61). Another problem is that businesses still lack to create a value for
consumers. High end and transparent hardware as well as fascinating use cases
are required before progress in this area can be made. The report states that
it will take 5 to 10 years before a mainstream adaption takes place and AR
reaches ‘Slope of Enlightment’ followed by ‘Plateau of Productivity’ (Walker
2017, p. 62). But how does a company foster mainstream adaption and create added value
to consumers? According to the Cognizant reports of 2016 (Tandulwadikar 2016,
p. 8) companies can promote AR in the long run by considering creating an IT
infrastructure that contains a higher number of “… computing power, network bandwidth and data storage capacity…to
accommodate new hardware and software …”. Further, enterprises
should foster an ecosystem, which is supportive. To ensure that the user can
access important content 24/7 and connect as well as collaborate securely with
the system, AR will require a high amount of resources that the company needs
to be able to allocate. In addition change has to be managed correctly, by promoting
and offering trainings for all users to become more confident with the new
technology but also address data privacy and security issues (Tandulwadikar
2016, p. 8). When looking at the outcomes
of the conducted interviews there were also some insights provided on the
future of AR. According to D. Götze (personal communication, 18 December 2017) AR has become more
frequent over the past years. When his company started to work with AR in 2007,
they cooperated with a Munich based company specialized in AR Software
Development. Over the years ESG saw how the company improved their AR software
and two years ago Apple acquired them. This shows how the technology has been
developing in the right direction but he also states, that as long as the
technology is not used commercially then it will stay a peripheral matter. V. Elefteriu
(personal
communication, 14 December 2017) also sees a development within AR. Over the past 5
years they have seen an improvement concerning the technology, for instance with
the Hololens and the foundation of the US-American company Magic Leap. But as D.
Götze, he also says that the general mass needs to first accept and generally
use AR. Here for another 5 years will pass. It will require a light version of
for example glasses need to be developed, without a cable, with a high
resolution and scope of view to foster social acceptance. Especially in the
medical area AR will be used in the process of tumour removal. Operations will
be much quicker, easier and safer. AR will probably evolve to be a standard and
it will solve the problem of solving Big Data issues as huge amounts of data
can be saved such as video sequences, screenshots and documentation and can
even be used to make predictions. E. Bauer (personal communication,16 December
2017)
also sees a higher presence of AR but that it will also take another 5 years
until the general public accepts and sees the advantages of AR to develop into
a standard. In this case, marketing needs to work more towards adequately
market AR technologies, as many people still do not know what AR is and what
its advantages are. On a contrary K. Ingman
(personal communication, 08 December 2017) sees that the development of AR has
been only been processing slowly. Especially when it comes to hardware or
technical devices there exist problems. If one looks at the Hololens it has
been on the market for over 3 years and it has not really gone into production
yet. An update that should have been announced this year has been postponed to
an indefinite date. In this case one can clearly see that AR is still in its
development phase. But he sees that AR will be present over all company
departments and industries. When summarizing the analysed
sources, one can see that the opinions on AR differ according to sources and
the results of the conducted interviews. In conclusion on can say, that
augmented reality will develop further in the future but it is uncertain when
the general public will accept and use AR as a daily product to be able to
develop into an industry wide standard. As Tim Cook, the CEO of Apple states: „ … AR
is going to take a while, because there are some really hard technology challenges…But
it will happen, it will happen in a big way, and we will wonder when it does,
how we ever lived without it. Like we wonder how we lived without our phone
today.”  And that “…a significant
portion of the population… will have AR experiences every day, almost like
eating three meals a day. It will become that much a part of you …” (as cited in Leswing 2017).  1.     
Conclusion As the manufacturing climate
is becoming more globalized, a constant and simultaneous exchange of
information during the manufacturing process is indispensible. But it also
requires a flawless collaboration between the different ‘points of attachment’ during
the product development life cycle (Rüßmann et al. 2015, p. 3-7 and Geissbauer
et al. 2017, p. 8ff). However, not only
globalization is influencing product development. Today’s products and the connected
manufacturing process are becoming more diverse in terms of the composition of
resources as well as functionality and complexity. In addition, manufacturers
need to provide various product add-ons and product variations that meet the
needs of mass customisation whilst staying economically competitive and efficient.
To fulfil these requirements, processes have to be improved and monitored on a
constant basis. Because, if a defective product is launched onto the market,
high monetary losses can follow but moreover reputational losses can have
incalculable impact and damage customers and economic integrity (Porter &
Heppelmann 2017).

Consequently, the question
prevails how a manufacturing company can grow and stay competitive in this
digital and globalized era. Many manufacturers have already adapted to the age
of Industry 4.0 by implementing “Smart factories” with technologies such as
cloud computing, IoT and cyber-physical systems. But also Augmented Reality is implemented on a more frequent basis to assist
the production line and development process (Rüßmann et al. 2015, p.3-7 and
Geissbauer et al. 2017, p. 8 ff.). According to the conducted research, there are
various advantages that support the implementation and effectiveness of AR in
manufacturing. It increases productivity, efficiency and the quality of
products, as AR can act as an aid for every person or entity working with it by
providing any data or guidance’s that is needed and connected to manufacturing.

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