A solar car is an electric vehicle powered by solar energy. This is the result obtained from solar panels on the surface (usually the top) of the vehicle. Photovoltaic cells integrated into the panels convert the sun’s energy directly into electrical energy, electricity is captured and then stored in batteries that power the electric motor of the car. Electrical systems and electronic control the operation from capture to storage of solar energy received. “In 1982, the Australian Hans Tholstrup built the” Quiet Achiever “, a vehicle powered by electricity supplied by photovoltaic cells which could reach a speed of 60km / h.
In 1983, he crossed with his experimental vehicle in 20 days Australia (Perth to Sydney is 4129 km). He then imagines an international competition “World Solar Challenge with the aim to travel as quickly as possible 3000 km from Darwin to Adelaide using only solar energy,” 1 °The first departure was given on 1 November 1987 to first 23 participants from seven different countries that are parties to Darwin. The runaway winner was Sunrayce General Motors. This car, built by the combined talents of GM and its subsidiaries (including Hughes Aircraft Corporation and AEROVIRONMENT) has completed the challenge 3. 00 km in just 44 hours and averaged 80. 9 km / h. The competition has since become an international reference and an expected event. Indeed, since its inception in has a dozen races in the world solar car:”Since 1987: The World Solar Challenge in Australia. Since 1989: The American Tour de Sol “in the United States. Since 1990: The “Sunrayce USA”, which later became the “Formula Sun Grand Prix and now the” North American Solar Challenge. Since 1992: The “Grand Solar Challenge” in Japan. Since 1993: “World Solar Rally car” in Akita in Japan and here, too. The Dream Cup Suzuka in Japan.
The “Dell-Winston School Solar Car Challenge, USA. 1996: The “Canadian Solar Discovery Challenge. In 2004: “Phaethon 2004” for the Athens Olympics in Greece. European Solar Rally 2004 (Barcelona)The World Solar Rally in Taiwan 2006, “Taiwan. Challenges ECO-MARATHON (Shell) Toulouse2007 “2 ° The influence of races of this type on the development of solar vehicles is large. These races have since become a testing ground for auto giants like Ford, Honda, Toyota and Nissan. They test several aspects of the car for example, aspects of design, aerodynamics, tires, etc.. These races have llowed development of concrete applications, including: General Motors has developed its famous EV1 electric car following the triumph of his car when the first solar Sunrayce WSC. Many other car manufacturers have used their knowledge gained from their participation in these races to later develop electric cars – which have not had the time to the success they deserve, even if in part to pressure from big oil companies and lower fuel costs. Today, these vehicles have a new strong showing, thanks to technologies that have improved, the rising cost of oil and accrut public awareness on the environmental theme.
The solar cells developed to benefit many non-transport applications, but that does not appear on the uses of electric and hybrid vehicles in addition to energy input. In fact, photovoltaic modules installed on the vehicle does not ensure its autonomy, but they contribute. The aerodynamics of the cars was reviewed in the automotive world, to reduce the consumption of cars. Tire improving fuel economy have also been developed by major manufacturers due to their participation. In cars, energy is lost in transmission, so from the WSC in 1993, several teams have begun using wheel motors.
This trend has spread very quickly, because the efficiency of energy conversion reached 98. 5%! This innovation is now often included in the construction of electric cars. Evolution of the solar car As we have seen in the latter, since 1981 we see a great evolution of the solar vehicle that operates on one side as much as prototype car full of innovations for races like the “World Solar Challenge” and another side car evolves Demonstrating and integrating these innovations into marketable to create cars. In the evolution of the solar car prototype found, for example: The construction of tires with low rolling resistance built in 1990 specifically for the event. The event of 1993: Invention of the “engine-wheel”, developed by the Solar Racing Team (University of New Wales) “3 Recently solar vehicles are not created only as far as demo cars and technical exercises often sponsored by government agencies but rather as transport devices daily.