Successes and Challenges of Contour Crafting Essay

1.1 Introduction

In 2013, the Gross Domestic Product of Malaysia showed 4.7 % . The continued strong growing in the domestic demand and the undertakings under the 10ThursdayMalayan Plan gave positive impact to the building sectors. From 2011 to 2013, the norm of 3.5 % has been contributed to the GDP by building sector. ( CIDB, 2014 ) Although it is comparatively little, the building industry has ever played an of import function of Malayan economic system. The authorities aims to do building industry more efficient, productive and safe.

Industrial revolution has wholly improved our recent life style. Nowadays, the robotic systems utility several insecure and complex human production activities. Over the past few decennaries, the development of advanced engineerings in the building industry is estimated to hold consequence on the method used to build a edifice. Manyinnovations and new engineerings have been used to increase the efficiency andperformance in building industry every bit good as to increase the sustainability of edifices, and supply a more comfy life environment for us.

Rapid Prototyping ( RP ) procedure has been applied over few decennaries in different types of utilizations such as architecture, car design, aerospace and medicinal. The building experts need to believe innovatively and look for options to current fiction and creative activity method. At this clip, the ways that our constructions are built have been radically transformed by the engineering. Engineering research squads have been carry oning experiments with utilizing 3D printing to concept constituents of edifices and whole places, which is called Contour Crafting. The printing is done with a “giant printer” which uses alone concrete and complex mixture. This building method eliminates and lessens the usage of lumber formwork, brickwork, and the figure of labor, with the intent of velocity up building undertakings with lower cost and safer building site. The productiveness and quality of work can be increased through the usage of modern building machineries, equipment, and stuffs.

1.2 Problem Statement

In Malaysia, the current building industry is developing quickly. The building of the MRT, devastation of Pekeliling Flats and redevelopment of old edifices, will take to important addition in building waste. In merely Kuala Lumpur, there were about 300 hot spots for illegal dumping. ( The Star, 2014 ) Large sum of building waste produced from building sites leads to serious environmental jobs and it has to be concerned by all parties.

Skilled labor deficit has become a planetary issue and it is besides disputing Malayan building industry. The president of Master Builders Association Malaysia, Matthew Teesaid that, the continuance from entry to the coming of foreign labors to building sites in Malaysia takes about eight months. It is non easy to acquire the beginning of labor and another job is occurred when retaining skilled labor. The present building sector still depending on labour intense and trade oriented production which leads to some safety issues, for an illustration the hurt and decease instances of labour on site. Contractors and employers need to look for other attacks to take down the dependance on foreign labours.

Evaluation and Property Services Department ( JPPH ) collected a information of 8 % growing of Malayan house monetary values, to MYR276, 668 in the first three months of 2014 from the first one-fourth of 2013. In July 2011, the Malaysia People’s Housing ( PR1MA ) Bill has been launched to develop low-cost residential for low and medium incomes purchasers every bit good as immature people. Developers build mid-range lodging alternatively of high-end developments to pull first clip purchasers. ( Global Property Guide, 2014 ) The monetary value of houses go on lifting so the low-priced lodging would be really good. Apart from being cost-efficient, the building method being applied besides needs to take into consideration of clip used. The current building undertakings are truly clip devouring that normallyit maytake months or old ages.

1.3 Aim and Objective

The purpose of this survey is to look into the engineering of 3D printing in building industry. In order to accomplish the purpose of the survey, there are three aims established as follows:

  1. To place the success factors of Contour Crafting application
  1. To place the challenges faced by Contour Crafting
  1. To look into public and private stakeholder’s credence of Contour Crafting

1.4 Scope and Limitations of Study

This research is focused on the stakeholders in building industry which separated into several classs: developers, designers, advisers, applied scientists and contractors to roll up their sentiments on the credence of. The respondents are chosen from top to middle direction degree merely. Besides, the research will merely concentrate on the building companies that placed within Kuala Lumpur country.

The range of research is by and large focused on the literature reappraisal, questionnaire study, and interview. The questionnaire study was designed based on success factors and challenges of Contour Crafting that recognized from literature reappraisal. Interview was completed by the interviewees from private and public sector sing to issues of Contour Crafting.

There are some restrictions in the research. Because of the trying methods applied are non-random which will merely be carried out in Kuala Lumpur, the consequences can non be represented to the whole population. Hence, the consequence is merely suited for the population involved in this research. Additionally, the respondents might possess their ain features like prejudice to certain groups or cardinal inclination which will act upon the consequence obtained. Due to limited budget, many instances study from overseas can non be carried out. It is besides non easy to do assignment for interviews with private and public stakeholders.

1.5 Chapter Outline

Chapter 1 contains of research background of building industry in Malaysia every bit good as the debut of Rapid Prototyping, follow by the jobs statement, purpose and aims, range and restrictions of this survey. Last, the chapter lineation of this research.

Chapter 2 includes the literature reappraisal that relevant and detailed with the research subject which are theintroduction of Contour Crafting, stuffs used, building procedures, the benefits, barriers faced in Malaysia and the applications that have been carried out.

In Chapter 3, it shows the research methodological analysiss will be carried out. Several tactics have been used to transport out this research in informations aggregation. This chapter besides demo how the questionnaire study and interview are designed.

Chapter 4 will present the consequence of informations collected in this survey and analysis informations based on respondents’ feedback. Summaries on the interviewees’ thoughts will be carried out and so the remark will be made excessively.

In the last chapter, the overall decision of the analysis will be carried out and the purpose and aims of the survey will be evaluated whether they meet with the study. Some recommendations and suggestions will be given for future survey.

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Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 What is 3D printing

3D printing is besides known as Rapid Prototyping, or Additive Manufacturing, has been around since the 1980s to do fictile merchandises until now the engineering has advanced and able to plan and publish one’s ain parts with assorted types of stuffs. The alleged Third Industrial Revolution is coming. ( TJ McCue,2014 )

There are chiefly three techniques used in 3D printing which are selective optical maser sintering ( SLS ) , stereolithography ( SLA ) and fused deposition modeling ( FDM ) . The focal point is put on FDM which has the same technique used by Contour Crafting. FDM ejects thermoplastic stuffs through a nose by puting down stuff in beds as it moves vertically. ( PrintSpace, 2014 )

2.1.1 Introduction of Contour Crafting

Builders around the universe were viing to build the first 3D-printed houses. In 2010, Dr. Behrokh Khoshnevis from the University of Southern California claimed that elephantine 3D printing system called as Contour Crafting ( CC ) could construct a a 2,500-square-foot house in 20 hours. ( Ryan, 2013 ) It is a superimposed fiction engineering that can construct a whole constructions every bit good as sub-components. The 3D pressman siting on a metal gauntry frame, along with the robotic extruding system and weighing about 500 lbs. ( Lucas Mearia, 2013 ) Two tracks would be laid down by workers for the automaton to run on and pour cement by a nose.

2.4 Legal Issues

Regardless of right of first publication and hallmark, a patent protects innovations like machines, proficient plants, and compounds. Unlike right of first publications, a patent demand to be registered from goverment before the discoverer can acquire any protection. 3D Printing is used as advanced manufacturing procedure in building sector, comes with legal issues which is worth to pay attending. Apotential riskof an organisation’s rational belongings arises. Khoshnevis claimed that Winsun’s actions copied his thought and he was fixing to take legal action. However, Winsun did non react to the petition for remark in this instance. Xinmin hebdomadal ( 2015 ) has consulted two experts on Sino-US Intellectual Property Agreement and they said that if the patent is registered in U.S, it merely prevent the usage of the patent within the state. However, patents can besides be registered internationally. But, Khoshnevis still can protect his right by trade secret jurisprudence.

2.6 Barriers to Use CC

In the transmutation of new engineering from conventional building method, there are two chief challenges, proficient and managerial. The proficient grounds include the development of the machine and stuffs design ( Hongkyu Kwon, 2002 ) . Those jobs should be solved beforetrying toconvinceothers to utilize the engineering. The new direction issues gather around the application of 3D printing in building. By now there is no clear directing direction as how to use it from get downing of a undertaking.

Other challenges of the CC engineering like people’s attitudes, feature of the building industry, which is an conservative industry and the clip needed to accept new engineerings is long, and in conclusion the unsure result of the new engineering. The research workers have to develop suited solutions to extinguish or minimise the debatable challenges and hazard so it is expected that the usage of 3D printing will go on to increase in building industry.

2.6.1 Machinery and Materials design

There are tonss of mechanical jobs for the CC machine which research workers are bettering them. Accuracy issues related to traveling of big members in dynamic gesture may hold occurred which means CC engineering requires better preciseness for the control of the nose. Variable-speed gesture of extruder system which the flow is stabilized in the full building work should be adopted. If the machine used is a large-scale robotic which bring forthing an full incorporate construction on site, it requires a big country of elaborate site readying, suited site layout to supply a broad working platform. this may deny many of the alleged benefits of whole printed-house but the printed constituents utilizing Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) may be more favourable. The current CC machines can non build the building’s foundation and it has to be built by workers.

The survey on new stuffs enables researcher to command the composing of stuff so that its viscousness and other belongingss can be control to desirable degree. The choice on appropriate stuffs to be used in different standards for planing a edifice.

2.6.2 Training and Learning Process

Application of new engineering such as contour crafting represents a new attack to edifice design, technology and direction. It requires high exchanging cost in footings of preparation and altering work flows and working procedures. The investing in hardware and attempt seting in larning the package plans is surpassed the initial productiveness losingss. Furthermore, most of the building companies refuse to do such hazardous investing unless they aware of the long term benefit to their organisation and or the suppliers pay a subsidy for developing cost possibly fix the whole preparation procedure in one bundle. ( Hammad, 2010 ) .

2.6.3 Attitudes and Behavior

Attitude affects an individual’s behaviours by determining his or her perceptual experience of a thing. ( Fazio, 1986 ) The local building industry which is afraid of altering and the uncertainness from the alterations make most of them will merely hold to alter if they are benefited. In add-on, the contractor may hold the purpose to alter when they are confronting some intense market competitions since they scaredoflosing, and there are strong motives for it to look for new innovations to prolong or better its competitory power.

2.6.4 Uncertainty Issues

The uncertainness of the result is one of the barriers in using the new engineering. It is best to get down with a pilot undertaking that allows the evaluating of the return on investing. The pilot undertaking should be a undertaking type with the known prosodies so that the net incomes can be estimated exactly. It besides enables the pilot squad to rush up their acquisition procedure by finding the methodological analysiss to utilize in future.