1. Identify the ways in which the Constitution changes including the amending process, change through practice and experience and change through judicial interpretation.
Constitution is usually amended in two major ways, either through passing a bill proposal a by not less than two thirds of the legislature house members or through a constitutional convection, which is called on by not less than two thirds of legislatures to amend a proposal. Then the proposed bill is sent to the state for approval by three-fourths of the legislatures.
Constitutional changes can be through judicial interpretation, which allows the Supreme Court system to grant the federal government excessive powers on constitutional changes in that it can make laws that are necessarily and appropriate. In addition change can be also through practice and experience, which in most cases is informal because it relies on use of past ideas and knowledge acquired from practices and experiences.
2. Summarize the arguments for and against the federal government involvement in education policy.
The government being involved in education policy can work to perfection as the necessary inputs required for its implementation e.g. funds can be more sufficiently and efficiently provided. Also the government can easily come up with new appropriate educational programs and trainings easily thus able to build the required educational based experts. Therefore for the federal government caters equally for all members of the society.
While on the other side the some educational experts have over time argued that it is only the private sector can easily cater for the needs of education through offering improved technological education. They argue that education should emphasize on specialization among scholars in various fields rather than generalization as the federal government indicates. Thus it aims at offering education according to ones abilities and capabilities, for future benefit of the nation from the educational technology. To add on these experts say that if the federal government continue taking part in education policy there shall always be expressed concerns about undue federal interferences on the choices which are considered to be the most appropriate in meeting educational needs.
3. Identify the specific powers granted by the Constitution to each of the three branches of the federal government.
There is the executive which is usually led by the president. He has powers to preserve, defend and protect the nation’s laws and the constitution. He has also got powers to terminate and make any executive appointments
Secondly there is the legislative which is composed of the congress and it is the law making organ. Apart from making laws it has got exclusive powers to legislate and enumerate power. In addition it has also got all the other powers vested in the government by the constitution.
The judicial which is vested in the supreme and inferior courts has the powers to decide over cases and controversies. It has also got powers to check both the legislative branch and executive branch through a process of judicial review.
4. Distinguish between delegated and implied powers, discussing the constitutional basis for each type of power.
Delegated Powers are the powers of the federal government that are clearly spelled out within the constitution. They are also referred to as enumerated Powers examples are powers to control the businesses within an economy, payment of taxes, enact and enforce law e.t.c. While the Implied powers are those ones that have been authorized by legal documentation but they are not stated and they are deemed to be implied by powers expressly stated
5. Describe the status of states under the Constitution, discussing the Tenth Amendment, reserved powers, and concurrent powers.
All the states under the governing federal government have incorporated the Constitution which embodies the national principle of unity and stability. The constitution also safeguards the rights and liberties of different individuals through balancing of powers. Therefore it enhances shared functions within individuals, states and the government through power control.
The Tenth Amendment of the constitution of US is part of the nation’s bill of rights. It was ratified in the year 1791.It has been involved in restating the US constitutional principle of federalism through the provision of various necessarily powers that haven’t been granted to the government. For instance it grants the concurrent powers, which are powers that are exercised in a territorial/ state setting simultaneously in relation to its citizens. These powers are usually held by all the states and the federal government. While also the Tenth Amendment grants reserves powers which are those that are denied to the federal government and they are only reserved to the people or the states.
Sobel. S, (1999).How the U.S. Government Works: The men and women in Congress meet with each other. Published by Barron’s Educational Series: New York