Synthetic Fibres Essay

Synthetic fibers and synthetic fabrics consist of bulk fibers, yarns, woven cloth or other textile products manufactured from polymer-based materials such as polyamide (nylon), polyester, aramid, or other spun thermoplastics.

Basic product types include: fibers and monofilaments, roving and yarn, carded and needlepunched non-wovens, braided products, rope and cordage, webbing, blankets or batts, sleeves or wraps, and thread.Bulk chopped fibers or thin, continuous fiber filaments are used typically in composite reinforcement applications, flowable insulation, or as the key component in woven fabrics, braids, knits, rope roving or other specialty fabrics. Roving is made of tows, untwisted bundles of continuous filaments. Yarn is made of continuous, often plied strands of natural or man-made fibers or filaments. Carded and needlepunched non-wovens offer very high loft (low density) at very low cost. Braided products are used for tubular composite structures, thermal insulation, and in other applications.

Webbing includes ribbons, strapping, and tape. Blankets or batts (batting) are made of thick layers of woven and/or non-woven fabric sheets. Sleeves or wraps (sleeving) are flexible, fibrous refractory products for insulating pipes, tubes, ducts and other process components. Synthetic thread includes both monofilaments and multi-fiber filaments. Synthetic fibers and synthetic fabrics are made from a variety of materials and may feature a blended, fibrous structure produced by copolymerization.Acetate and triacetate fibers are shrink-resistant and wrinkle-resistant. Acrylic and modacrylic fibers are unique among synthetic fibers and synthetic fabrics because they have an uneven surface.

Aramid and polyimide fibers are lighter and tougher than steel. Synthetic fibers that are made of elastomers, fluoropolymers, glass, and fiberglass are also commonly available. Ceramic fibers are designed for high-temperature applications. Metallic fibers have a shiny surface and relatively high levels of thermal and electrical conductivity.Material types for synthetic fibers and synthetic fabrics include: carbon and graphite, nylon and polyamide, olefin and polyolefin, polybenzimidazole (PBI) and poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole (PBO), polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

Fused silica fibers and quartz fibers are also included in this product area. Selecting synthetic fibers and synthetic fabrics requires an analysis of dimensions, properties, structural features, and applications.Overall thickness, overall width, overall weight, and fabric weight are important dimensions to consider.

Properties for synthetic fibers and synthetic fabrics include use temperature, fabric strength, breaking load, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity. In terms of structural features, some synthetic fibers and synthetic fabrics are chemical or fuel resistant, electrically conductive, electrically insulating, flame retardant, hydrophilic, absorbent, or suitable for sound-proofing.Other products are hydrophobic, waterproof, fireproof, or thermally insulating. Synthetic fibers and synthetic fabrics are used in a variety of industries and applications, including: aerospace, apparel or clothing, architecture and construction, automotive and transportation, chemical processing, electrical, electronic, filtration, marine, and medical. Specialized products can also be used to control electrostatic discharge (ESD) and provide shielding from electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI).